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Exam1notes - I. Major course themes a. The classical/Greek...

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I. Major course themes a. The classical/Greek tradition in natural philosophy i. Ontology – the study of existence/ reality ii. Cosmology – the study of the cosmos 1. cosmos=to put in order, give structure to the world iii. Epistemology – the study of knowledge 1. How you know what you know b. Post-Ancient world i. Cultural contexts ii. Audiences and institutions iii. Social expectations Science and Its Origins p. 1-4 September 4, 2006 I. What is science? a. The pattern of behavior by which humans have gained control over their own environment b. Viewing science as a body of theoretical knowledge, technology as the application of theoretical knowledge to the solution of practical problems c. Define science by the form of its statements, universal, law-like statements expressed in mathematics i. Boyle’s Law d. Methodology-procedures, usually experimental, for exploring nature’s secrets and confirming or disconfirming theories about her behavior i. Experimental foundation e. Not what the man of science believes that distinguishes him but how and why he believes it i. Based on evidence. ii. Justifying one’s knowledge f. A particular set of beliefs about nature g. Any procedure or belief characterized by rigor, precision, or objectivity. i. Beer pong h. Term employed as general terms of approval II. Many words have multiple meanings, varying with the particular context of usage. a. Science has diverse meanings, each of them legitimate III. Science now is different that what it used to be a. If we wish to do justice to the historical enterprise, we must take the past for what it was. b. We need to be broad and inclusive
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IV. Science=natural philosophy=philosophy of nature a. The term “science” has connotations, both ancient and modern b. “natural philosophy” used to either denote the scientific enterprise as a whole or to signify its more philosophical side c. science will sometimes be used to designate more technical aspects of natural philosophy The Greeks and the Cosmos p. 21-25 The world of Homer and Hesiod I. Homer—author of the Iliad and the Odyssey a. Archaic Greek poetry as primary sources b. Recount heroic adventures associated with the closing days and aftermath of the Trojan War between the Greeks and Troy c. Became the foundation of Greek education and culture and remain among the best measures we have of the form and content of ancient Greek Thought d. The Homeric worldview i. Particular natural events – not all events ii. Unique cause for each particular natural event=many causes iii. Causes are personified II. Hesiod—author of Works and Days and the Theogony a. Recounts the origin of the gods and the world b. Gave a genealogy c. Defined their character and the functions III. Greek Gods a. Zeus i. Greatest and most powerful of the gods b. Hera—his sister and wife i. Presided over weddings and marriage c. Poseidon—bother of Zeus i. God of both sea and earth ii. Author of storms and earthquakes d. Hades—another brother
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Exam1notes - I. Major course themes a. The classical/Greek...

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