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Exam2notes - 500-1000 1000-1200 1200-1450 Early Middle...

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10/5/06 500.1000 Early Middle Ages (fall of Rome to the year 1000) 1000.1200 “transition period” or Central Middle Ages 1200.1450 High or Late Middle Ages In the year 330, for administrative purposes, Constantine split empire into 2 parts -Greek speaking eastern half=Constantinople -Italian speaking western half=Rome *3-500’s Rome under attack by outsiders *By 500, western empire collapsed *What happened to Greek natural philosophy?? I. The monasteries + Carolingian educational reforms (early Middle Ages) a. The monasteries in the Latin West i. Individuals wanted to retreat from society and practice Christian teaching ii. Monasticism=one solitary person wanting to retreat from society to gain spiritual enlightenment iii. Individuals formed small groups with a common purpose iv. Monastic communities formed the centers of what we now call monasteries v. St. Benedict wrote the Benedictine rule =guidelines for a monastic lifestyle. 1. Emphasized READING 2. Demanded that monks learn Latin(most didn’t know it) 3. Slightly entered the world of Greek philosophical thinking and retained it! b. The Carolingian educational reforms i. Charlemagne – reunites western Europe under a single ruler 1. attempts to recreate the glory of the Roman empire 2. Literacy should unite ordinary people with those who knew how to read 3. Training people who could lead the empire, lead the church ii. Alcun – a learned individual chosen by Charlemagne to found a school in his palace iii. Martianus Capella – Interested in preserving the Greek philosophical tradition – set the curriculum (7 liberal arts) 1. Trivium: a. Grammar – write well b. Rhetoric – speak and argue persuasively c. Dialect – Logical argument 2. Quadrivium : (from Platonic education) a. Geometry b. Arithmetic c. Astronomy
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d. Music *represent an expansion of learning beyond the monastery *indicates a revival of interest in the classical Greek philosophy *Education reforms DON’T have a long lasting effect *BUT lay foundations for next stages of development II. The Urban Schools (Central Middle Ages) a. Re-urbanization of Europe i. Cities center of commerce, political power, literacy and learning ii. Structure of Roman empire iii. Repopulation of Europe causes re-urbanization iv. Puts greater emphasis on schools attached to cathedrals v. Trends toward secular schools as well—offers broader learning, including NON-religious subject matter vi. Bringing back education system that was in Greek and Rome b. Rationalism —revival of the third liberal art—Dialectic i. Aristotle’s writings were studied ii. Attempt to apply rational thinking TO Christian ideas/beliefs iii. Anselm gives a logical proof of the existence of God iv. Peter Abelard Sic et non (Yes and no) considers 150 theological ideas/opinions and asks, “Yes or no?” and argues both sides.
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