NURS 6521N-26: ADVANCED PHARMACOLOGYINITIAL DISCUSSION POST (Week 4) Deborah Lucero, RN, BS, CVRN-BC, FACCN Pharmacotherapy for Respiratory Disorders Pneumonia Pneumonia is a pulmonary infection that involves the alveoli of the lungs. It can effect people of all ages, gender, and socioeconomic statuses. Pneumonia can be caused from viruses, bacteria, mycobacteria, mycoplasma, and fungi (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2013). Two classifications include community-acquired and hospital-acquired. Community-acquired pneumonia will be the focus of this discussion. Pneumonia is referred to as an acute lower respiratory tract infection (Patterson & Loebinger, 2012). Community-acquired pneumonia can occur by inhaling airborne bacteria and invasion occurs in the lower respiratory tract (Patterson & Loebinger, 2012). The most common causative agent of pneumonia is S. pneumonia. Other microorganisms that are known to cause pneumonia, include H. influenza, S. aureus, and gram-negative bacilli (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2013). Sanz et al. (2014), note people will experience multiple symptoms before making an appointment with the healthcare provider. Elderly patients, for instance, may present with neurological symptoms that are atypical of a cold or cough that most providers are familiar seeing in patients with pneumonia. Cough and fatigue are the two symptoms that most patients will endure the longest, an average of seven days, prior to seeking medical advice (Sanz, Restrepo, Fernandez-Fabrellas, Cervera, Briones, Novella, & Blanquer, 2014). Other symptoms may include rapid onset of fever, pleuritic chest pain, dyspnea, chills, and headaches (Patterson
& Loebinger, 2012). Chest radiographs, auscultation of lungs, and sputum cultures are effective diagnostics to aid in the diagnosing pneumonia. A definitive diagnosis is most commonly made with infiltrates present on chest x-ray.
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- Staphylococcus aureus