LING150 - Lecture Notes (Collaborative).pdf - Vocabulary(Vocabulary terms are categorized under their first introduction if a vocabulary term is defined

LING150 - Lecture Notes (Collaborative).pdf -...

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Vocabulary (Vocabulary terms are categorized under their first introduction; if a vocabulary term is defined in multiple chapters, it will only appear here under the first chapter it was found in). Of course, all these vocabulary words are found in the readings, but compiling them in a single document makes finding specific terms easier. Introduction Abductive reasoning: inferring possible causes of phenomena based off our observations, and labeling phenomena Arbitrariness: in the linguistic sign, arbitrariness is the lack of resemblance between the signifier and and the signified. Data: observed phenomena → observed language behavior Displacement: the ability to communicate about concepts not present in the immediate context. Etymology: the study of the history and origin of words in particular languages. A grammar: a theory of language in general Your (or a person’s) grammar: the set of principles/rules that constitute a person’s knowledge of their own language. Grammaticality judgement: An opinion, regarding whether or not a word/phrase/statement is properly formed. Hierarchy: Items organized in relationships to one another in a way that they can be above, below, or on the same level as other items. Hypothesis: a prediction about behavior that may be confirmed/proven incorrect by data. Hypothetico-deductive reasoning: use of a theory to derive a hypothesis, then testing the hypothesis. Inductive Reasoning: using past experience to predict future phenomena Language: systematic, rule-governed form of communication using arbitrary signs in a creative way Linguist: scientist of Language Linguistics scientific study of language Meso-science: science that is comprised of multiple subfields, each contributing to the understanding of the main field. Native Speaker: a person who acquire their L1 as a small child and who counts it as (one of their) primary language(s). Principle of Compositionality: the principle/idea that the meaning of a complex expression is determined by the structure and meanings of its constituents. Philosophy of Language: what a person believes language is Philosophy of Linguistics: the belief of a person regarding what the goals of linguistics should be, what should be studied, and what methods are best for studying that thing. Science: investigation of observed phenomena that utilizes the scientific method.
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Scientific Method: a way of investigating → observation of phenomena, development of theories, then hypotheses, then the testing of those hypotheses Sign: a word-meaning pair Signifier: pronunciation or representation of a word Signified: that which is referred to by a word Theory: A proposed explanation of observable phenomena Typology: a subdiscipline of linguistics dealing mostly with labelling different types of phenomena Subfields of Linguistics Phonetics Is the study of... The physical properties of Human Speech Sounds Phonology Is the study of...
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