© 1994, 2003, 2010 CENTER FOR CIVIC EDUCATION 12 11 10 01 02 03 Permission is granted to use this document, or portions of it, to serve the purposes of the Goals 2000: Educate America Act contingent upon appropriate credit being given to the Center for Civic Education. Permission must be sought for commercial use of content from this publication, when the material is quoted for advertising, when portions are used in other publications, or when charges for copies are made. Use of material from the National Standards for Civics and Government , other than in the cases described, should be brought to the attention of the Center for Civic Education. Directed by the Center for Civic Education and funded by the U.S. Department of Education and The Pew Charitable Trusts. Cover photo ©Visions of America, LLC, and EyeWire, Inc. Interior and cover design by Mark Stritzel ISBN 10 0–89818–216–6 ISBN 13 978–0–89818–216–3
National Standards for Civics and Government is published by the Center for Civic Education, 5145 Douglas Fir Road, Calabasas, CA, 91302, (818) 591-9321, .
4 EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Charles N. Quigley EDITORIAL DIRECTORS Charles N. Quigley Margaret S. Branson Duane E. Smith SENIOR CONSULTANT AND ADVISOR R. Freeman Butts PRINCIPAL RESEARCH AND WRITERS Charles F. Bahmueller Margaret S. Branson Charles N. Quigley Duane E. Smith PUBLIC INFORMATION Mark J. Molli Tam Taylor EDITORIAL DIRECTOR (CURRENT EDITION) Mark Gage DESIGN DIRECTOR Mark Stritzel Acknowledgments PRESIDENT Thomas A. Craven, Esq. MEMBERS H. David Fish C. Hugh Friedman Janet M. Green William D. Hatcher Paul A. Kramer Jr., Esq. Stanley W. Legro Dale R. Marshall Ali Mossaver-Rahmani Laura O’Leary James D. Otto James N. Penrod, Esq. Paul M. Possemato Clark N. Quinn M. Carmen Ramirez, Esq. Moina Shaiq Clara Slifkin, Esq. Robert B. Taylor Jeri Thomson Jonathan Varat Pauline Weaver Robert Wells Patricia White, Esq. Charles L. Whiteside Daniel Wong MEMBERS EMERITUS R. Freeman Butts Joanne M. Garvey Tom Giugni Leland R. Selna CENTER FOR CIVIC EDUCATION BOARD OF DIRECTORS
NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE The Honorable Spencer Abraham The Honorable Les AuCoin Richard Bagin The Honorable Max Baucus The Honorable Bill Bradley John Bridgeland Anne Bryant The Honorable John Buchanan Jr. The Honorable Dale Bumpers R. Freeman Butts Mark Cannon Gene Carter Michael Casserly The Honorable Thad Cochran The Honorable William Cohen Gail Connelly John Cooke Philip Crane The Honorable Mitchell Daniels Jr. Thomas Donohue Jean Bethke Elshtain The Honorable Dianne Feinstein William Galston Susan Griffin Will Harris The Honorable Orrin Hatch The Honorable Mark Hatfield Charles Haynes The Honorable Ernest Hollings G. Thomas Houlihan Paul Houston A. E. Dick Howard Victoria Hughes The Honorable James Jeffords Michael B. Keegan Jack Lockridge William Lucas David McIntosh Glenn Anne McPhee Joe McTighe The Honorable Patty Murray Kitty O’Reilley William Pound The Honorable J. Danforth Quayle Diane Ravitch Cheryl Red Owl Alfred Regnery Karen Ristau, EdD Robert Schadler The Honorable Philip Sharp
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