Human Anatomy .docx - Human Anatomy Principle of the...

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Human Anatomy: Principle of the abdominal cavity Abdominal Cavity- Boundaries - Superior (Diaphragm) - Inferior o Pelvic brim (Iliac crests) - Anterior o Anterior abdominal wall - Posterior o Posterior abdominal wall and vertebral column Abdominal Cavity- Subdivisions - Peritoneal Cavity o Surrounded by serous membrane o Peritoneum o Primarily digestive organs - Retroperitoneal Cavity o Space behind the peritoneum o Predominantly urinary** and some digestive organs P eritoneum - Serous sac that lines the abdominal cavity (Visceral peritoneum & Parietal peritoneum) - Mesentery** (Peritoneum that anchors viscera to the posterior abdominal wall) (Provides mobility, Mesentery proper (intestines), Omentum (stomach)) - Abdominal organs completely surrounded by visceral peritoneum are called Intraperitoneal - Retroperitoneal organs typically lie against the posterior abdominal wall Functions - Ingestion – Food and fluid - Propulsion – of ingested substances from one organ to the next - Digestion • Mechanical processing – physical breakdown • Chemical digestion- breakdown from digestive Enzymes - Secretion - from accessory digestive organs - Absorption - of nutrients - Defecation - elimination of undigested food Pharynx
Common passage for food, fluid and air Posterior to the nasal and oral cavities 3 divisions: Naso- (respiratory only) Oro- (digestive and respiratory) Laryngo- (digestive and respiratory) Swallowing (deglutition) occurs here o Buccal phase o Pharyngeal phase o Oesophageal phase • Continuous with the oesophagus Oesophagus Connection between mouth and stomach Begins posterior to larynx Posterior to trachea (in the mediastinum) Passes through diaphragm Joins stomach Muscle Skeletal superior 1/3 Mixture of skeletal and smooth at middle 1/3 Smooth inferior 1/3 Sphincters Superior- regulates flow from mouth to oesophagus Inferior- regulates flow from oesophagus to stomach Stomach J-shaped organ Shape highly variable Dependant on contents Muscular 3 layers of muscularis externa Functions: Mechanical digestion Chemical digestion Enzymatic digestion 2 curvatures Lesser* (superior) Greater* (inferior) Small intestine - 3 parts • Duodenum • Jejunum • Ileum
- Functions: Chemical digestion Absorption (nutrients) Propulsion Mechanical digestion Secretion Duodenum 1st part of small intestine Connected to pyloric part of the stomach C-shaped • Curves around pancreas Receives digestive fluids from stomach and the accessory glands (liver, gallbladder and pancreas) Firmly attached to the posterior abdominal wall** Accessory digestive organs-Liver Located in the upper right hand quadrant of the abdomen Characterised by: 4 anatomical lobes Right – largest Caudate lobe IVC Quadrate lobe Gall bladder Lef Ligaments Falciform S eparates L and R lobes Secures liver to anterior abdominal wall Round ligament (ligamentum teres) Residual fetal blood supply Coronary ligament Bare area Porta hepatis** ‘gateway’ in and out of the liver Common hepatic duct Hepatic artey

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