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Unformatted text preview: Psychology 8 February 2008 Learning o Relatively permanent change in an organisms behavior due to experience Association o We learn by association Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence Aristotle 2000 years ago John Locke and David Hume 200 years ago o Associative Learning Learning that two events occur together Two stimuli A response and its consequences Classical Conditioning o Ivan Pavlov 1849-1936 Russian physician/ neurophysiologist Nobel prize in 1904 Studied digestive secretions o Classical Conditioning Organism comes to associate two stimuli A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus o Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) (operant) Stimulus that unconditionallyautomatically and naturallytriggers a response o Unconditioned Response (UCR) Unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus Salvation when food is in the mouth o Conditioned Response (CS) Originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response o Conditioned Response (CR) Learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus o Acquisition The initial stage in classical conditioning The phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response o Extinction Diminishing of a CR In classical conditioning, when a UCS does not follow a CS In operant conditioning, when a response is no longer reinforced o Spontaneous Recovery Reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished CR o Generalization Tendency for stimuli similar to CS to elicit similar responses o Discrimination In classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal a UCS Behaviorism o John B. Watson Viewed psychology as objective science Generally agreed-upon consensus today Recommended study of behavior without reference to unobservable mental processes Not universally accepted by all schools of thought today 11 February 2008 Operant Conditioning o Type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment (Skinner) o Respondent Behavior Occurs as an automatic response to stimulus Behavior learned through classical conditioning o Operant behavior Operates (acts) on environment Produces consequences o B.F. Skinner Elaborated Thorndikes Law of Effect Developed behavioral technology o Law of Effect Thorndikes principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely o Skinner Box...
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- Spring '08