Chapter 6

Chapter 6 - Chapter 6: Probability: The Study of Randomness...

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Chapter 6: Probability: The Study of Randomness 1. I toss a penny and observe whether it lands heads up or tails up. Suppose the penny is fair, that is, the probability of heads is ½ and the probability of tails is ½. This means A) that every occurrence of a head must be balanced by a tail in one of the next two or three tosses. B) that if I flip the coin many, many times, the proportion of heads will be approximately ½, and this proportion will tend to get closer and closer to ½ as the number of tosses increases. C) that regardless of the number of flips, half will be heads and half tails. D) all of the above. Ans: B Section: 6.1 The Idea of Probability 2. A phenomenon is observed many, many times under identical conditions. The proportion of times a particular event A occurs is recorded. This proportion represents A) the probability of the event A. C) the correlation of the event A. B) the distribution of the event A. D) the variance of the event A. Ans: A Section: 6.1 The Idea of Probability 3. A basketball player makes 160 out of 200 free throws. We would estimate the probability that the player makes his next free throw to be A) 0.16. B) 50-50; either he makes it or he doesn't. C) 0.80. D) 1.2. Ans: C Section: 6.1 The Idea of Probability 4. If the individual outcomes of a phenomenon are uncertain, but there is nonetheless a regular distribution of outcomes in a large number of repetitions, we say the phenomenon is A) random. B) predictable. C) deterministic. D) none of the above. Ans: A Section: 6.1 The Idea of Probability 5. I toss a thumb tack 60 times and it lands point up on 35 of the tosses. The approximate probability of landing point up is A) 35. B) 0.35. C) 0.58. D) 0.65. Ans: C Section: 6.1 The Idea of Probability Page 88
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Chapter 6: Probability: The Study of Randomness 6. Suppose we have a loaded die that gives the outcomes 1–6 according to the following probability distribution: X 1 2 3 4 5 6 P ( X ) 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1 Note that for this die all outcomes are not equally likely, as they would be if the die were fair. If this die is rolled 6000 times, the number of times we get a 2 or a 3 should be about A) 1000. B) 2000. C) 3000. D) 4000. Ans: C Section: 6.1 The Idea of Probability 7. Suppose we roll a red die and a green die. Let A be the event that the number of spots showing on the red die is 3 or less and B be the event that the number of spots showing on the green die is more than 3. The events A and B are A) disjoint. B) complements. C) independent. D) reciprocals. Ans: C Section: 6.2 Probability Models 8. In a particular game, a fair die is tossed. If the number of spots showing is either 4 or 5 you win $1; if number of spots showing is 6 you win $4; and if the number of spots showing is 1, 2, or 3 you win nothing. If it costs you $1 to play the game, the probability that you win more than the cost of playing is A) 0. B) 1/6. C) 1/3. D) 2/3. Ans:
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Chapter 6 - Chapter 6: Probability: The Study of Randomness...

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