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Name of piece Lecture Slide Joseph Kosma, Autumn Leaves (1945) Idiophones with definite pitch Vibraphone - resonator, damper Jean Ritchie, Shady Grove Chordophone - sound is produced by a vibrating string activated by striking, plucking, or bowing Applachian Dulcimer - quill to pluck the string; "drone strings" Appalachian dulcimer a plucked zither found chiefly in the Appalachian Mountains; it is held horizoŶtallLJ the plaLJer’s lap aŶ d strummed with a quill or the thumb of the right hand; the string nearest the player is the melody string and is stopped either with a finger or a wooden bar; the remaining strings are drones François Couperin, Les Baricades Mistérieuses (1716-1717) Piano - "when you press a key, the wood lifts up, takes the damper (for single actuation) to 'hammer' the string', then comes back down to stop it from ringing" Harpsichord - "plucked" string, vs "struck" string by a piano hammer Lecture 2 (harpsichord): range - narrow contour - undulating motion - both disjunct and conjunct ornamentation - trill at 0:42 motive Ornamentation - trills heavily used (particularly in Baroque period). Part of "performance practice" - intrumentalists and vocalists think about how to add it into the melodic line. (i.e. Chopin) Henry Cowell, The Banshee (1925) Banshee - "type of spirit in Irish folklore, appears before someone is about to die" 20th century composers try to find sound qualities (i.e. plucking the piano string) There are four types of sound in this piece made by four distinct playing techniques: 1) sweeping the flesh of the fingers across the wire-wound strings 2) rubbing along the length of the wire-wound strings with the flesh of the finger 3) plucking strings with the flesh of the finger (pizzicato) (0:51) 4) rubbing along the length of the string with the back of the fingernail (1:08) find more resources at find more resources at
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Richard Strauss, Don Quixote, Variation II (1897) Flutter tonguing - on brass instruments, "the tongue is fluttered or trilled against the roof of the mouth, just behind the front teeth". i.e. the sheeps in Don Quixote Lecture 2 (program music): recreate events in terms of sound (i.e. Don Quixote's entrance, flock of sheeps, etc.) for example, Religion Large range with a quick ascend. Sancho- servant, undulating melody, small range Fanfare for victory, uncertainty and nervousness in war, sadness in death and defeat Ϭ:ϬϬ DoŶ Quidžote’s theŵe ;“aŶĐho PaŶza’s theŵe joiŶs iŶ at Ϭ:ϭϭͿ 0:20 Our heroes encounter a flock of sheep 0:38 The flock slowly moves and the sounds of the sheep grow louder as the Don and Sancho draw near 1:00 Don Quixote charges the sheep ϭ:ϭϯ DoŶ Quidžote’s theŵe returŶs triumphantly after the sheep scatter Edgard Varèse, Poème électronique (1957-1958) Electrophones - sound produced via electric means. Played at world's fair, inside pavilion a light show, hearing a variety of sounds. 350
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