Midterm 2 Chapter Outlines-14 Leftovers, 3, 4, 5

Midterm 2 Chapter Outlines-14 Leftovers, 3, 4, 5 - Geology...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapters 14, 3, 4, 5 Chapter 14: Exploring Earth’s Interior Left over material from previous midterm - Paleomagnetism- records of magnetization and the reversals of Earth’s magnetic field. - thermoremanent- Rocks heated above their Curie Temperature (~500°C) will have their thermoremanent magnetism “reset”. Once they cool below the Curie Temp, they will then record the surrounding magnetic field. Discovered by an Australian at an Aborigines campsite. - depositional remanent- 1. magnetic mineral grains transported through the ocean with other sediments align with the magnetic field while settling. 2. The orientation of the grains are lithified in the sediment preserving the record of magnetic orientation at that time period. (Magnetite, Hematite) - Magnetic stratigraphy- black bands that represent the reversals of the magnetic fields over time. -currently in the Phanerozoic Eon -long period of normal polarity was called “the cretaceous quiet zone” Chapter 3: Earth Materials: Minerals and Rocks What are minerals? - building blocks of rocks - mineral definition: 1) naturally occurring. 2) solid, crystalline structure. 3) inorganic, not produce of living things. 4) specific chemical composition. The atomic structure of matter Atom-smallest unit of an element that retains the physical and chemical properties of the element Atomic Structure of Matter Nucleus: made of protons and neutrons Electrons: cloud of moving particles around the nucleus Atomic number- the # of protons, order of periodic table of elements Atomic mass- sum of masses of protons and nucleus Isotopes- atoms of the same element (same # of protons) with different # of neutrons. Ex: Carbon- C12(6P, 6N) and C13(6P, 7N) Electron Sharing and Transfer Ions: Cation: +charge……Anion: -charge Periodic Table of the Elements Chemical reactions/Chemical Bonds Chemical Reactions-interactions of the atoms of two or more elements in certain fixed proportions. Bonding Covalent- electron sharing, stronger than ionic bond (ex: diamonds- carbon) Ionic- electron transfer, attraction between ion of opposite charge (ex: NaCl) - 90% of all bonds Metallic- cations that want to lose electrons pack together The atomic structure of minerals Mineral Formation Crystallization- the atoms of a gas or liquid come together in the proper chemical proportions and crystalline arrangement. During cooling of molten rock. Precipitation- crystallization can occur for liquids when a solution is homogeneous such as salt and water. As the solution evaporates the solution becomes stronger and eventually saturated. As liquid continues to evaporate, crystals drop out of the solution. Ex: deposits of halite or salt when seawater evaporates. 1
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 8

Midterm 2 Chapter Outlines-14 Leftovers, 3, 4, 5 - Geology...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online