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Final Notes - The discovery of the solar system the...

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The discovery of the solar system- the celestial sphere isnt real but good concept for maps of the sky. Latitude- north south Longitude- west east On celestial map - declination (NS) right ascension (E-W) Circumpolar stars- rotate around axis, polaris Zenith- straight up, no matter what Meridian- straight to zenith in south 15 degrees right ascension = 1 hour "Solar" time- sun same as ordinary clock time, reason for time zones sun at meridian = noon "Sidereal" time- stars 1 sidereal day =23h 56m Used sidereal time in old days, now add one day every 4 years Leap Day Ecliptic- suns annual path across constellations 23.5 degree tilt Earth rotates counterclockwise, and all objects in solar system also CCW Equinox- daylight= night Summer solstice- longest daylight Witner solstice- shortest daylight Retrograde motion- greek philosophers were 1st to figure out what is actually happening 6000BCE, Claudius Ptolemy - textbook writer 1900 years ago. Geocentric theory- everything revolves around earth Copernicus one of first to further 14th century astronomy c.1520, lots going on renaissance almost done beginning of scientific renaissance. Heliocentric- explained retrograde motion by putting sun in center. But couldn’t explain moon… Thomas Digges - london realized no celestial sphere, realized that if earth moves around the sun, then the stars might be like the sun but very far away. Infinite space instead of celestial space. Galileo- 1600-1620 latin experiments, pendulums, telescopes, thought moon had oceans and mountain, explained that moons revolved around planets. Jupiter has four moons, venus has phases which means it goes around the sun. Kepler - believed shape of planet involved geometry and that orbit was connected to music (1) "Orbit of mars is an ellipse" (2) Aphelion- moves slower farthest from sun, Perihelion- faster closest to sun. Equal areas in equal times (3) p2/a3= the same for all planets p= orbital peiod (year) a= avg distance from sun (AU) Tycho Brahe - interested in astronomy wanted to measure movements of planets, lost his nose in a geometry brawl, hvan-castle by the king had detailed instruments and got very accurate observations hired kepler to do math calculations Decartes (1596-1650) planets swept around by vortex Isaac newton (1642-1727) english, mathematics, explained "thought experiment" 1665, developed calculus to work on keplers laws. Orbiting object is always falling towards the other object that attracts it Distance is reckoned from the center of objects, vector- quantity has direction in space (position, velocity, acceleration) Uniform circular motion- motion of an object in a circle at constant speed sideways acceleration= v2/ r
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Force= mass x acceleration Gravity= (g x m x M) / distance2 Inverse square law explains keplers law Law of physics apply to everything led to modern physics Isaac Newtow recognized as the "most important man in the world" Orbit shapes ellipse, parabola starts faster slows down Hyberola does slow down = conic section Energy in Orbits Kinetic = 1/2mv2 Potential - gh=(GMm)/ r KE + PE = constant = E = 1/2mv2 + gh (think roller coaster) Milankovitch cycles
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