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BREAST FEEDINGPresented By: K.C.MEGHWAL
DEFINITION OF BREASTFEEDINGBreastfeeding is the feeding of an infant or young child with breast milk directly from female human breasts (i.e., via lactation) not from a baby bottle or other container.EXCLUSIVE BREAST FEEDING"Exclusive breastfeeding" is defined as no other food or drink, not even water, except breast milk (including milk
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF BREASTLacteferous ductslobulesdilated section of duct to hold milknipplefatpectoralis majormusclechest wall/rib cagenormal duct cellsbasement membranelumen Enlargement:Nipple:18-20 duct
CON’T…•Nipple and aerola enlarge and darken during pregnancy.•Small bump on aerola called Montgomery gland.montgomery gland:•To soften the nipple(prepare the nipple forbreastfeed)
The Prolactin Reflex1. (Long arrow) Nerve impulses from sucking go to brain2. (Short arrow) The pituitary gland releases prolactin into the blood3. (Breast) This causes the alveolar cells to secrete milk and swells the alveoliThe Milk Ejection Reflex1. (Long arrow) Nerve impulses from sucking go to the brain2. (Short arrow) The pituitary gland releases oxytocin into the bloodstream3. (Breast) This causes muscles around the alveoli in the breast to squeeze milk to the nippleThe milk ejection reflex
HOW BREAST MILK IS PRODUCEDThe let-down reflex•How body responds to baby’s suckling:Infant suckling stimulates the nerve endings in the nipple and areola, which signal the pituitary gland in the brain to release two hormones, prolactin and oxytocin.How Breast Responds to Baby’s Suckling:•Prolactin causes alveoli to take nutrients (proteins, sugars) from blood supply and turn them into breast milk.
•Let-down is experienced in numerous ways including:–Infant begins to actively suck and swallow. –Milk may drip from the opposite breast. –Mother may feel a tingling or a full sensation (after the first week of nursing) in breasts or uterine cramping. –May feel thirsty.Oxytocin causes the cells around the alveoli to contract and eject milk down the milk ducts. This passing of the milk down the ducts is called the “let-down” (milk ejection) reflex.
10 Steps to Successful Breastfeeding1.Have a written breastfeeding policy that is routinely communicated to all health care staff.