This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.
This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.View Full Document
Unformatted text preview: Psychology 101 TTK # 2 Learning • Learning is any relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience. • Classical Conditioning is a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus. • “Psychic Reflex” was the term used by Pavlov to describe the ability of the dogs to know food was about to be given simply by the ringing of a bell. • The Unconditioned stimulus is a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning. This is a natural reflex. The Unconditioned Response is an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning. • The Conditioned Stimulus is a previously neutral stimulus that has acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response through conditioning. The Conditioned Response is a learned response to a conditioned stimuli that occurs because of previous conditioning. • Conditioning occurs by pairing the UCS and the CS multiple times until the subject recognizes the connection between the CS and the UCS and therefore the CS produces the CR. • Examples of conditioned responses are pavlov’s dogs, phobias, and some everyday anxieties. • Conditioning follows these basic steps o Acquisition - the initial stage of learning due to conditioning o Extinction – the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency o Spontaneous Recovery – the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus • Stimulus Generalization – this occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to a new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus o An example of this is the case of Little Albert who was initially unafraid of rats. He was introduced to the rats and given an unpleasant noise which conditioned him to fear the rats. Albert however generalized this fear into a fear of anything that resembled a rat. • Stimulus Discrimination – this occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does to respond in the same way to new stimuli that is very similar to the original stimulus o The less similar new stimuli are to the original than the easier discrimination is. • Higher Order Conditioning – conditioning in which a CS serves as the UCS. This shows that classical conditioning does not depend on the presence of a natural UCS. • Operant Conditioning – developed by BF Skinner – a form of learning in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences o Skinner showed that organisms tend to repeat those actions that are followed by favorable consequences....
View Full Document