API - Glossary.pdf - Glossary of Oilfield Production Terminology(GOT(DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS FIRST EDITION JANUARY 1 1988 American Petroleum

API - Glossary.pdf - Glossary of Oilfield Production...

This preview shows page 1 out of 292 pages.

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 292 pages?

Unformatted text preview: Glossary of Oilfield Production Terminology (GOT) (DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS) FIRST EDITION, JANUARY 1, 1988 American Petroleum Institute 1220 L Street, Northwest Washington, DC 20005 Issued by AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE Production Department FOR INFORMATION CONCERNING TECHNICAL CONTENTS OF THIS PUBLICATION CONTACT THE API PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT, 2535 ONE MAIN PLACE, DALLAS, TX 75202-3904 – (214) 748-3841. SEE BACK SIDE FOR INFORMATION CONCERNING HOW TO OBTAIN ADDITIONAL COPIES OF THIS PUBLICATION. Users of this publication should become familiar with its scope and content. This publication is intended to supplement rather than replace individual engineering judgment. OFFICIAL PUBLICATION REG U.S. PATENT OFFICE Copyright 1988 American Petroleum Institute TABLE OF CONTENTS Page FOREWORD 2 SECTION 1: LIST OF PUBLICATIONS 3 SECTION 2: ABBREVIATIONS AND DEFINITIONS 5 FOREWORD A. This publication is under the jurisdiction of the API Executive Committee on Standardization of Oilfield Equipment and Materials. B. The purpose of this publication is to provide standards writing groups access to previously used abbreviations and definitions. Standards writing groups are encouraged to adopt, when possible, the definitions found herein. Attention Users of this Publication: Portions of this publication have been changed from the previous edition. The location of changes has been marked with a bar in the margin. In some cases the changes are significant, while in other cases the changes reflect minor editorial adjustments. The bar notations in the margins are provided as an aid to users to identify those parts of this publication that have been changed from the previous edition, but API makes no warranty as to the accuracy of such bar notations. Note: This is the first edition of this Glossary. Requests for permission to reproduce or translate all or any part of the material published herein should be addressed to the Director, American Petroleum Institute, Production Department, 2535 One Main Place, Dallas, TX 75202-3904. POLICY API PUBLICATIONS NECESSARILY ADDRESS PROBLEMS OF A GENERAL NATURE. WITH RESPECT TO PARTICULAR CIRCUMSTANCES, LOCAL, STATE AND FEDERAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS SHOULD BE REVIEWED. API IS NOT UNDERTAKING TO MEET DUTIES OF EMPLOYERS MANUFACTURERS OR SUPPLIERS TO WARN AND PROPERLY TRAIN AND EQUIP THEIR EMPLOYEES, AND OTHERS EXPOSED, CONCERNING HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS AND PRECAUTIONS, NOR UNDERTAKING THEIR OBLIGATIONS UNDER LOCAL, STATE, OR FEDERAL LAWS. NOTHING CONTAINED IN ANY API PUBLICATION IS TO BE CONSTRUED AS GRANTING ANY RIGHT, BY IMPLICATION OR OTHERWISE, FOR THE MANUFACTURE, SALE, OR USE OF ANY METHOD, APPARATUS, OR PRODUCT COVERED BY LETTERS PATENT. NEITHER SHOULD ANYTHING CONTAINED IN THE PUBLICATION BE CONSTRUED AS INSURING ANYONE AGAINST LIABILITY FOR INFRINGEMENT OF LETTERS PATENT. GENERALLY, API STANDARDS ARE REVIEWED AND REVISED, REAFFIRMED, OR WITHDRAWN AT LEAST EVERY FIVE YEARS. SOMETIMES A ONE-TIME EXTENSION OF UP TO TWO YEARS WILL BE ADDED TO THIS REVIEW CYCLE. THIS PUBLICATION WILL NO LONGER BE IN EFFECT FIVE YEARS AFTER ITS PUBLICATION DATE AS AN OPERATIVE API STANDARD OR, WHERE AN EXTENSION HAS BEEN GRANTED, UPON REPUBLICATION. STATUS OF THE PUBLICATION CAN BE ASCERTAINED FROM THE API AUTHORING DEPARTMENT (TEL. 214-748-3841). A CATALOG OF API PUBLICATIONS AND MATERIALS IS PUBLISHED ANNUALLY AND UPDATED QUARTERLY BY API, 1220 L ST., NW., WASHINGTON, D.C. 20005. This Glossary was adapted from several sources. It includes several terms for which there is no single, commonly accepted definition in the petroleum industry. Therefore, some firms within the industry may use definitions which vary somewhat from those contained herein. 1.1 The following API Publications were reviewed to compile the abbreviations and definitions found in Section 2 of this Bulletin. 1.2 List of Publications Bul S1, Fourteenth Edition Spec Q1, Second Edition Spec 1B, Fifth Edition RP 2A, Seventeenth Edition Spec 2B, Third Edition Spec 2C, Third Edition, with Supp 1 RP 2D, Second Edition Spec 2E, First Edition, with Supp 1 Spec 2F, Fourth Edition RP 2G, First Edition, with Supp 1 Spec 2H, Fourth Edition RP 2I, First Edition Bul 2J, First Edition RP 2K, Second Edition RP 2L, Third Edition RP 2M, First Edition Bul 2N, First Edition RP 2P, Second Edition RP 2Q, Second Edition RP 2R, First Edition RP 2T, First Edition Bul 2U, First Edition Bul 2V, First Edition Spec 2W, First Edition RP 2X, First Edition, with Supp 1 Spec 2Y, First Edition RP 2Z, First Edition Spec 3, Twelfth Edition RP 3, First Edition STD 4A, Sixteenth Edition, with Supp 1 STD 4D, Sixth Edition, with Supp 1 Spec 4E, Second Edition, with Supp 3 Spec 4F, First Edition Spec 5A, Thirty-Ninth Edition Spec 5AC, Sixteenth Edition Spec 5AQ, Second Edition Spec 5AX, Fifteenth Edition Bul 5A2, Fifth Edition, with Supp 3 RP 5A5, Third Edition STD 5B, Twelfth Edition RP 5B1, Second Edition RP 5C1, Fifteenth Edition Bul 5C2, Twentieth Edition Bul 5C3, Fourth Edition, with Supp 1 Bul 5C4, Second Edition Spec 5L, Thirty-Sixth Edition RP 5L1, Third Edition RP 5L2, Third Edition RP 5L3, Second Edition RP 5L5, First Edition, with Supp 1 RP 5L6, First Edition RP 5L7, First Edition Bul 5T1, Eighth Edition Spec 6A, Fifteenth Edition, with Supp 2 Spec 6AB, First Edition Spec 6D, Eighteenth Edition, with Supp 3 Spec 6FA, First Edition RP 6G, Third Edition Spec 7, Thirty-Fifth Edition, with Supp 2 STD 7B-11C, Eighth Edition RP 7C-11F, Fourth Edition Spec 7F, Fourth Edition, with Supp 1 RP 7G, Twelfth Edition RP 7H, Second Edition, with Supp l Spec 7J, First Edition, with Supp 1 Spec 8A, Eleventh Edition RP 8B, Fourth Edition, with Supp 2 Spec 9A, Twenty-Third Edition RP 9B, Ninth Edition Spec 10, Third Edition, with Supp 1 Bul 10C, Third Edition Spec 10D, Third Edition RP 10E, Second Edition RP11AR, Second Edition Spec 11AX, Eighth Edition Spec 11B, Twenty-Second Edition, with Supp 1 RP 11BR, Seventh Edition, with Supp 1 Spec 11C, First Edition Spec 11E, Fourteenth Edition RP 11ER, First Edition RP 11G, Second Edition, with Supp 3 Bul 11K, First Edition RP 11L, Third Edition, with Supp 1 Spec 11N, Second Edition Spec 11P, First Edition, with Supp 2 RP 11R, Second Edition RP 11S, Second Edition RP 11S1, First Edition RP 11T, First Edition RP 11U, Second Edition RP 500B, Third Edition Spec 12B, Twelfth Edition, with Supp 2 Spec 12D, Ninth Edition, with Supp 2 Spec 12F, Ninth Edition Spec 12J, Fifth Edition Spec 12K, Fifth Edition Spec 12L, Third Edition, with Supp 1 RP 12N, First Edition Spec 12P, First Edition RP 12R1, Third Edition Spec 13A, Eleventh Edition, with Supp 1 RP 13B, Eleventh Edition, with Supp 1 Bul 13C, First Edition Bul 13D, Second Edition RP 13E, Second Edition Bul 13F, First Edition RP 13G, Second Edition RP 13H, First Edition RP 13I, Second Edition, with Supp 1 RP 13J, First Edition Spec 14A, Sixth Edition, with Supp 2 RP 14B, Second Edition, with Supp 3 RP 14C, Fourth Edition Spec 14D, Sixth Edition, with Supp 2 RP 14E, Fourth Edition RP 14F, Second Edition RP 14G, Second Edition RP 14H, Second Edition Spec 15AR, Third Edition RP 15A4, First Edition Spec 15LE, Second Edition Sec 15LP, Sixth Edition Spec 15LR, Fifth Edition, with Supp 1 RP 15L4, Second Edition Spec 16A, First Edition RP 17A, First Edition RP 27, Third Edition RP 31, Third Edition RP 33, Third Edition RP 34, First Edition RP 35, First Edition RP 36, First Edition RP 37, Second Edition RP 38, Third Edition RP 39, Second Edition RP 40, First Edition RP 41, First Edition RP 42, Second Edition RP 43, Fourth Edition RP 44, First Edition RP 45, Second Edition RP 46, First Edition RP 48, First Edition RP 49, Second Edition RP 52, First Edition RP 53, Second Edition RP 54, First Edition RP 56, First Edition RP 57, First Edition RP 58, First Edition Bul D4, March, 1963 Bul D8, September 1964 Bul D9, Third Edition Bul D10, Second Edition Bul D11, Second Edition Bul 12A, January 1979 Bul D14, Second Edition Bul D15, First Edition Bul D16, First Edition Bul D17, Second Edition Bul D19. First Edition Bul D20, First Edition Introduction to Oil & Gas Production (ITOGP), 1983 Corrosion of Oil and Gas-Well Equipment (COGWE), 1958 Subsurface Salt Water Injection and Disposal (SSWID), Second Edition Well Testing (WT), Second Edition Wireline Operations and Procedures (WLOP), 1983 Gas Lift (GL), Second Edition, 1984 RP T-1, Second Edition RP T-2, October 1975 RP T-3, First Edition RP T4, First Edition RP T-5, Second Edition RP T-6, First Edition SECTION 2 ABBREVIATIONS AND DEFINITIONS 2.1 The following abbreviations and definitions were compiled from the API Publications listed in Section 1. Following each definition is, in parentheses, the publications(s) in which it is used. The definitions found herein have not been changed from their use in the indicated publication and in some cases there may be multiple definitions for the same word. 2.2 Abbreviations and Definitions -AAAR – Association of American Railroads ABANDON – To cease efforts to produce fluids from a well, in depleted formation and to plug the well without adversely affecting the environment. (Bul 10C) ABANDON – To cease efforts to produce oil or gas from a well, and to plug a depleted formation and salvage all material and equipment. (ITOGP) ABS – American Bureau of Shipping ABATEMENT – The act or process of reducing the intensity of pollution; also, the use of some method of abating pollution. (Bul D11) ABNORMAL OPERATING CONDITION – A condition which occurs in a process component when an operating variable ranges outside of its normal operating limits. (RP 14C) ABRASIONS OR PEENING – Damage on the pipe resulting from a rubbing or pounding action against other pipe or some protrusion in the vessel. This latter condition may result in the initiation of fatigue cracks at the damaged areas during transit. (RP 5L5) ABSOLUTE PRESSURE – Pressure measured from absolute zero pressure. It is ordinarily expressed as gage pressure (the pressure reading on a pressure gage) plus atmospheric pressure, and denoted in pounds per square inch absolute (psia). (WLOP) ABSOLUTE VOLUME – The volume per unit mass, reciprocal of absolute density. (Bul 10C) ABSORPTION – The penetration or apparent disappearance of molecules or ions of one or more substances into the interior of a solid or liquid. For example, in hydrated bentonite, the planar water that is held between the mica-like layers is the result of absorption. (Bul D11) ABSORPTION - To soak up as a sponge takes water. (COGWE, ITOGP, SSWID) AC FIELD – The active magnetic field produced by the use of alternating current. (RP 5A5) ACCELERATION METHOD. Utilizes the angles at the top and bottom of the course length and from these generates a curve on the assumption that the measured angles change smoothly from top to bottom of the measured course as though under the influence of a constant force of acceleration. The results obtained are the same as the “Balanced Tangential,” “Trapezoidal,” and “Vector Averaging” Methods. (Bul D20). ACCELERATOR – A material which accelerates or speeds up the normal rate of reaction between cement and water, resulting in an increase in the development of early strength, and, in some cases, a decrease in the setting time or thickening time. (Bul 10C) ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA – Limit of shape, size, and position of discontinuities acceptable within the context of the specific design requirements. (RP 2X) ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA – Defined limits placed on characteristics of materials, products, or services. (Spec 6A, Spec 16A, Spec Q1) ACCESS OPENING – An opening which allows communication to the interior of the flame arrestor housing making the mixer, pilot, burner, etc., accessible. This opening is normally closed by a flat plug or plate 3” to 4” in diameter, securely attached to the housing and tightly sealed against the opening. (RP 12N) ACCESSORY – A secondary part of assembly of parts which contributes to the overall function and usefulness of a machine. (Spec 2C) ACCLIMATION – The process of adjusting or adapting to changes in climate or environment. (Bul D11) ACCUMULATOR – A pressure vessel charged with nitrogen gas and used to store hydraulic fluid under pressure for operation of blowout preventers. (RP 53) ACI – American Concrete Institute ACID – Any chemical compound containing hydrogen capable of being replaced by positive elements or radicals to form salts. In terms of the dissociation theory, it is a compound which, on dissociation in solution, yields excess hydrogen ions. Acids lower the pH. Examples of acids or acidic substances are: hydrochloric acid, tannic acid, sodium acid pyrophosphate. (Bul D11) ACID BOTTLE – Early method of measuring the angle of inclination. A glass bottle with hydrofluoric acid was lowered to the bottom and allowed to set until the acid etched the glass. The angle of inclination was determined by the etched line. (Bul D20) ACID RESISTANCE – The ability of a hardened cement slurry to withstand the softening and corrosive effects of organic or mineral acids, or water solutions of these acids and their salts having a pH lower than 7.0. (Bul 10C) ACIDITY – The relative acid strength of liquids as measured by pH. A pH value below 7. See pH. (Bul 10C, Bul D11) ACIDIZING – The practice of injecting acids into rock formations to remove any blocking material or to enlarge the pores to enhance the movement of fluid through the rock. (Bul 10C) ACIDIZING – The treatment of formations with hydrochloric or other type acids in order to increase production or injection. (ITOGP) ACIDIZING – The act of pumping an acidic solution into a wellbore to remove materials from the perforations, pipe, and walls of the producing formation or pumping the solution into formations to improve permeability. (RP 54) ACOUSTIC IMPEDANCE – The factor which controls the propagation of an ultrasonic wave at a boundary interface. It is the product of the material density and the acoustic wave velocity within the material. (RP 2X) ACT – Automatic Custody Transfer ACT – Automatic Custody Transfer: A unit designed to automatically move oil from lease storage to pipe line. Normally made up of a pump, back-pressure valve, BS&W monitor, and oil meter. (WT) ACTIVE ZONE – A region in which the ice moves and deforms. (Bul 2N) ACTUATION TEST, BLOWOUT PREVENTER – The closing and opening of a blowout preventer unit to assure mechanical functionability. (RP 57) ACTUATOR – A mechanism for the remote or automatic operation of a valve or choke. (Spec 6A) ACUTE TOXICITY – Any poisonous effect produced within a short period of time, usually up to 24-96 hrs., resulting in severe biological harm and often death. (Bul D11) ADAPTER – A pressure containing piece of equipment having API end connections of different nominal sizes and/or pressure ratings, used to connect other pieces of equipment of different API nominal sizes and/or pressure ratings. (Spec 16A) ADDED MASS – Effective addition to the system mass which is proportional to the displaced mass of water. (RP 2T) ADDENDUM – The distance between the pitch line and crest of thread. (RP 5B1) ADDITION – A material added to a cement clinker during manufacture, commonly gypsum/anhydrite and water. (Bul 10C) ADDITIVE – A material other than cement or water which is added to a cement subsequent to its manufacture to modify properties. Equivalent of admixture in ASTM usage. (Bul 10C) ADEQUATE VENTILATION – Adequate ventilation is defined as ventilation (natural or artificial) which is sufficient to prevent the accumulation of significant quantities of vapor-air mixtures in concentration above 25% of their lower flammable (explosive) limit (LEL). (RP 500B) ADEQUATELY VENTILATED AREA – An adequately ventilated area is an area that has a ventilation system (natural or artificial) which prevents the accumulation of gases to an explosive level. Adequate ventilation is provided by a change of air volume each five minutes, or 1.5 cubic feet of air volume flow per minute per square foot of floor area, whichever is greater. (RP 14F) ADFREEZE- Adhesion between ice and a structural surface. (Bul 2N) ADHESION – A physical attraction, operating on the molecular level, exerted between the surfaces of bodies in contact. (Bul 10C) ADHESION – The molecular attraction or force exerted across the surfaces of contact between unlike liquids and solids which resist their separation. (Bul D11) ADJUSTMENT – Activities associated with the sizing or setting of a SSCSV value as defined in the Manufacturer’s Operating Manual. Adjustment may be performed at the well site or other location. Each part installed for the purpose of adjustment should be a qualified part. (RP 14B) ADJUSTABLE CHOKE – A choke in which the position of a conical needle in a seat can be used to vary the rate of flow through the choke. (WLOP) ADMINISTRATIVE OR REGULATORY AUTHORITY – Governmental agency or the employer in the absence of governmental jurisdiction. (Spec 2C) ADMIX – To add one material to another by mixing. Note: Admix should not be used replaceably with addition, additive or admixture. (Bul 10C) ADSORBED LIQUID – That liquid on the surfaces of solid particles that cannot be removed by draining, even with centrifugal force. (Bul 13C) ADSORPTION – A surface phenomenon exhibited by a solid (adsorbent) to hold or concentrate gases, liquids, or dissolved substances (adsorptive) upon its surface, a property due to adhesion. For example, that water held to the outside surface of hydrated bentonite is absorbed water. (Bul D11) ADSORPTION – The accumulation of a thin layer of molecules of gas or liquid on a solid surface. (COGWE, SSWID) ADSORPTION – The attraction exhibited by the surface of a solid for a liquid or a gas when they are in contact. (ITOGP) AERATE – Adding air into water by agitation. (SSWID) AERATION – The technique of injecting air or gas in varying amounts into a fluid. (See Air Cutting.) (Bul 10C) AERATION – The process of being supplied or permeated with air. (Bul D11) AERATION – The technique of injecting air or gas in varying amounts into a drilling fluid for the purpose of reducing hydrostatic head. See Air Cutting. (Bul D11) AEROBIC – With atmospheric oxygen present. (COGWE, SSWID) AEROBIC – the condition associated with the presence of free oxygen in an environment; living, active, or occurring only in the presence of oxygen. (Bul D11) AEROBIC BACTERIA – Bacteria that are active primarily in the presence of oxygen. (SSWID) AEROSOL – Suspension of liquid or solid particles in air or gas. (Bul D11) “A” FRAME – See Gantry also called Mast. (Spec 2C) AGENCY – An organization or part of an organization selected by the owner to perform examinations as required by the specification or purchase order. (RP 2X) AGENCY PERSONNEL – Technicians employed and trained by an independent organization, offered to the operator on a contract basis, for assisting in the construction inspections. (RP 2X) AGER – A water filled pressure chamber used to apply external pressure to gas lift valves to flex the bellow during the pressure setting operation. (GL) AGGLOMERATE – A mass of particles or substances closely associated and clustered together. (Bul D11) AGGLOMERATION – The grouping of individual particles. (Bul D11) AGGREGATE – An essentially inert material of mineral origin having a particle size predominately greater than 10 mesh. Also a group of two or more individual particles held together by strong forces which are not subject to dispersion by normal mixing or handling. (Bul 10C) AGGREGATE – A group of two or more individual particles held together by strong forces. Aggregates are stable to normal stirring, shaking, or handling as powder or a suspension. They may be broken by drastic treatment such as ball milling a powder or by shearing a suspension. (Bul D11) AGGREGATION – Formation of aggregates. In drilling fluids, aggregation results in the stacking of the clay platelets face to face. The viscosity and ge...
View Full Document

  • Spring '19
  • S. Nawab

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes