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NamingPolyatomicAnionsCations - in bold face ClO-hypo chlor...

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(page and table numbers refer to Brown, LeMay, and Bursten, 10 th edition) Polyatomic Anions Polyatomic cations Formula Name Formula Name Formula Name CN cyanide CO 3 2– carbonate NH 4 + ammonium OH hydroxide SO 4 2– sulfate Hg 2 2+ mercury(I) or mercurous ClO hypochlorite SO 3 2– sulfite ClO 2 chlorite CrO 4 2– chromate ClO 3 chlorate Cr 2 O 7 2– dichromate ClO 4 perchlorate PO 4 3– phosphate NO 3 nitrate PO 3 3– phosphite NO 2 nitrite C 2 H 3 O 2 acetate MnO 4 permanganate polyatomic ions - table 2.5, many are oxyanions (p.64) - central atom surrounded by oxygens Often a series of 2 to 4 oxyanions are formed with the same central atom and charge, but different numbers of oxygen atoms. You have to know everything about one member of the series then you can figure out the others by using prefixes and suffixes as seen in the chlorine oxyanion example below (prefixes and suffixes
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Unformatted text preview: in bold face) ClO-hypo chlor ite ClO 2-chlor ite ClO 3-chlor ate ClO 4-per chlor ate For example, if you know chlorate is ClO 3-then chlorite must be ClO 2-because ite ending denotes one less O than ate ending. A prefix of hypo and suffix of ite denotes one less O than just ite . If an oxyanion has one more O than the ate member of the series then the prefix per is added. The first syllable or two of the central atom are used in the name to identify the atom other than O that is present in the ion. For example BrO 4-is perbromate and BrO 3-is bromate. Hint: quite often the charge on the oxyanion is the charge the central atom has as an elemental anion....
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