IoT Module - 3 TEJASHWINI P & MANORANJAN S R , DEPT. OF ISE, RNSIT Page 1 Module 3 - IP AS THE IOT NETWORK LAYER Internet Protocol (IP), which has become the standard in many areas of IoT. With support from numerous standards and industry organizations, IP and its role as the network layer transport for IoT is a foundational element that has to be familiarized with. 3.1 The Business Case for IP Data flowing from or to “things” is consumed, controlled, or monitored by data center servers either in the cloud or in locations that may be distributed or centralized. Dedicated applications are then run over virtualized or traditional operating systems or on network edge platforms (for example, fog computing). These lightweight applications communicate with the data center servers. Therefore, the system solutions combining various physical and data link layers call for an architectural approach with a common layer(s) independent from the lower (connectivity) and/or upper (application) layers. This is how and why the Internet Protocol (IP) suite started playing a key architectural role in the early 1990s. IP was not only preferred in the IT markets but also for the OT environment. 3.1.1 The Key Advantages of Internet Protocol One of the main differences between traditional information technology (IT) and operational technology (OT) is the lifetime of the underlying technologies and products. One way to guarantee multi-year lifetimes is to define a layered architecture such as the 30-year-old IP architecture. IP has largely demonstrated its ability to integrate small and large evolutions. At the same time, it is able to maintain its operations for large numbers of devices and users, such as the 3 billion Internet users. Before evaluating the pros and cons of IP adoption versus adaptation, this section provides a quick review of the key advantages of the IP suite for the Internet of Things: • Open and standards-based: Operational technologies have often been delivered as turnkey features by vendors who may have optimized the communications through closed and proprietary networking solutions. The Internet of Things creates a new paradigm in which devices, applications, and users can leverage a large set of devices and functionalities while guaranteeing interchangeability and interoperability, security, and management. This calls for implementation, validation, and deployment of open, standards-based solutions. While many standards development organizations (SDOs) are working on Internet of Things definitions, frameworks, applications, and technologies, none are questioning the role of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) as the foundation for specifying and optimizing the network and transport layers. The IETF is an open standards body that focuses on the development of the Internet Protocol suite and related Internet technologies and protocols.
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