Gov Unit 3.docx - The United States congress u274f Key...

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The United States congressKey termsConstituents: residents in the area from which an official is electedLegislators: people who serve in congressCaucus: groups of legislators who belong to the same partyBill: proposed legislationCongressional powersLay and collect taxesBorrow moneyRegulate commercePrint and coin moneyEstablish the post officesPromote progress of science and artCreate lower courtsDeclare war in necessaryProvide and maintain for militaryApprove presidential appointmentsImpeach the president if necessaryTable 9.1 differences between the house and the senateDelegate model Figure 12.4 How members of congress represent their districtsCongressional normsAs careerism took shape so did the normsDeference to leadersInstitutional patriotismCourtesy to membersApprenticeshipSpecializationLimited use of filibusterThe electoral connectionWho decides to runfor congress
Few seriously challenge because of the incumbency advantageFigure 9.2 The Power of IncumbencyAllocating seats in congressApportionment: a process occurring after every decennial census that allocates congressional seats among the 50 statesRedistricting:a process of redrawing election districts; done every 10 years to reflect shifts in populationGerrymandering:districts are shaped to create an advantage for party that controls redistricting processFigure 9.3 Results of congressional reapportionment 2010Wesberry vs sanders (1964)“Each state must draw house districts so they are nearly equal in size”Reduces representation of rural districts during redistrictingMiller vs johnson (1995)minority -majority districts are unconstitutionaland violates the equal protection clause“Race cannot be the predominant factor in drawing electoral district lines because it looks like segregation”Keys to powerPolitical party controlLeadership positionsControl of key committeesControl of the rulesLeadershipSenatePresident of the senateVice presidentBreak a tie if there is one in the senateMajority leaderMinority leaderMinority and majority whipsMin-least amount of seatsMaj-most amount of seats
HouseSpeaker of houseAny bill requiring revenue or tax (any money attached to bill) goes to house firstSpeaker controls the debateMajority leaderMinority leaderMin and maj whipsTable 12.2 Permanent committees of congressTable 9.5 How a Bill Becomes a LawHouse rulesClosed rules:place severe limits on floor debate and amendmentsOpen rules:permit more floor debate and make it easier to add amendments to bills

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