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PSYC 213 Winter 2018 Malka A-r MIDTERM REVIEW ( LECTURES 1-8) LECTURE 1 WUNDT and TITCHENER:Structuralism Asked WHAT is the mind made of using introspection (experimental or structured self-observation). understanding the structure of the mind, and higher cognitive processes. JAMES: Functionalism. focused on WHY the mind works. Mental states, including consciousness, are developed based on the way the mind works and how these functions are adaptive. Consciousness is constantly changing - Behaviourism: Shifted from a focus on the mind to behavior. We should only focus on what is observable. Did not consider intervening mental processes. Reinforcement (operant conditioning): SKINNER. An emphasis on rigorous experimentation NEISSER: Cognitivism. Internal mental processes could be studied and measured. existence of internal mental states. view of the mind as a processor of information ( mind is like computer) LECTURE 2 classic cognitive psychology views Main idea: The world contains information for us to store and process - The mind is a general-purpose processing system that performs a series of specific computations - Information flows from one step to the next - Processing these steps takes time and resources: This limits the amount of mental activity that can occur at one time Information what is information? The most basic unit of information is a Bit . →Information theory we actively select information to reduce uncertainty in our minds. more info, less prob of occurrence. Experiment ex of this theory: HICK and HYMAN.Reaction time and info content. Information is about the context. Less probable = More information = more proceesing. HICKS LAW: More information= more time. processing capacity is limited, In consequence: decision fatigue ( cognitive processes depletion) →two influential models 1.BROADBENTFilter Model: Processing takes time and resources. Filter information to process it. Information-processing is restricted by channel capacity. Therefore, a lot
PSYC 213 Winter 2018 Malka A-r of info comes in, but lots gets filtered out, so only a little bit is left to process. Dichotic Listening Task 2.WAUGHand NORMAN’s Model: information is processed and stored in stages. primary memory is like a snapshot of the present without processing, it wont flow to long term memory, and the information will be forgotten Primary memory -→secondary memory. You need to rehearse for it to go to to secondary memory Example of stud: BROWN PETERSON TEST. Makes it unable for you to rehearse so info decays and doesn’t pass to secondary memory ☹→Ecological validity: The extent to which the findings of a research study are able to be generalized to real-life settings. GIBSONcognition in a way that reflects real world conditions. We learn from interacting w/ environment. Cognition at ecological and not physiological level.