Chapter 7 I.The Jeffersonian Era A.The Rise of Cultural Nationalism i.American cultural life in the early nineteenth century reflected the Republican vision of the nation's future.ii.Opportunities for education increased, iii.the nation's literary and artistic life began to free itself from European influences,iv.and American religion began to adjust to the spread of Enlightenment rationalismII.Educational and Literacy Nationalism A.Republican wanted free public schools for males B.Many schools were private C.Many schools were run by religious group D.In New England, private academies were often more secular, many of them modeled on those founded by the Phillips family at Andover, Massachusetts, in 1778, and at Exeter, New Hampshire, three years later.E.Free schools were inferior in education F.Education was primarily for males. G.As Americans began to place a higher value on the importance of the “republicanmother” who would help train the new generation for citizenship, people began to ask how mothers could raise their children to be enlightened if the mothers themselves were uneducatedH.In 1789, Massachusetts required that its public schools serve females as well as males. Other states, although not all, soon followed.I.Judith Sargent Murrayi.In 1784, Judith Sargent Murray published an essay defending the right of women to educationii.Women and men were equal in intellect and potential, Murray arguediii.Women, therefore, should have precisely the same educational opportunities as men.iv.And they should have opportunities to earn their own livings and to establish roles in society apart from their husbands and familiesJ.The number of colleges and universities in America grew substantially, from nine
at the time of the Revolution to twenty-two in 1800.III.Medicine and Science A.Medicine and science were not always closely connected to each other in the early nineteenth century, but many physicians were working hard to strengthen the linkB.The University of Pennsylvania created the first American medical school in 1765.C.Some American physicians believed in applying new scientific methods to medicine, but they had to struggle against age-old prejudices and superstitions.D.People were against the study Anatomy because of the dissection of cadavers E.Lack of sanitation causes diseases F.Individual patients often had more to fear from their doctors than from their illnesses. Even the leading advocates of scientific medicine often embraced ineffective or dangerous treatments.G.George Washington's death in 1799 was probably less a result of the minor throatinfection that had afflicted him than of his physicians' efforts to cure him by bleeding and purging.H.Decline of Midwiferyi.Most childbirths, for example, had been attended by female midwives in the eighteenth century.