chemII 21 nuclear chemistry.doc - Chapter 21 \u2753what makes the sun shine \ufffd hydrogen fusion reaction with helium nuclear reaction \ufffd nuclear reaction

chemII 21 nuclear chemistry.doc - Chapter 21 ❓what makes...

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Chapter 21 what makes the sun shine? ? hydrogen fusion reaction with helium ( nuclear reaction) ? nuclear reaction - involves changes in the nucleus of an atom ? nuclear chemistry - the study of nuclear reactions with emphasis on their uses in chemistry and their effects on biological system ? nucleons - protons and neutron ? different isotopes have different abundances ? different nuclei have different stabilities ? Nuclide - nucleus with specified number of protons and neutrons ? radionuclides - nuclei that are radioactive ? radioisotopes- atoms containing radionuclide's ? alpha particles (stream - alpha radiation) ? Helium-4 Nuclear equation : 238U-92 234Th-90 + 4He-2 ? sum of mass and sum of atomic number must be the same in both sides ? Radioactive decay - nucleus spontaneously decomposes ? Types of radioactive decay 1. Alpha decay - alpha particles; streams of alpha particles consist of 4He-2 ? charge 2+; penetrating power 1 238U-92 → 234Th-90 + 4He-2 2. Beta radiation- streams of beta particles; represented by 0e- -1 (negative charged particles)?charge 1- ; penetrating power 100 3. Gamma radiation - consists of high energy photons ( electromagnetic radiation of very short wavelength); 0 0 4. Positron emission positron - particle that have the same mass as an electron but opposite charge; 0e+1 had a very short life, cuz it is annihilated when collides w/ electron produce gamma rays ? causes atomic number to decrease 11C-6 11B-5 + 0e-+1 ? has the ability to change proton to neutron 1p-1 1n-0 + 0e-+1 5. Electron capture - capture by nucleus of an electron from the electron cloud surrounding the nucleus 81Rb37 + 0e- -1 (orbital electron) 81Kr36 had also the effect of converting proton to neturon 1p-1 + 0e- -1 → 1n-0 ? nuclear force- strong force of attraction exist between nucleons at close distance ? belt of stability - colored band in which all stable nuclei are foundfound; ends at element 83
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bismuth ?
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