In chapter 11, Freedman starts by saying that over the past few centuries, a growing emphasis on non-reproductive sexuality in Western cultures has transformed sexual meaning in two important ways. First, erotic sexuality apart from reproduction has increasingly become a form of personal identity. By 1900 the new European science of sexology had coined both heterosexual and homosexual terms to classify both feelings and individual desires for the same or opposite sex. Secondly, a sexual sell pervades Western culture, while media representations have expanded sexuality from the private bedroom into the public spaces of television shows, movies, and radio talk shows. Freedman claims that despite media portrayals of Western feminists as anti-sexual, their politics have simultaneously criticized demeaning images and demanded female sexual pleasure without shame. Feminists struggle to redefine sexuality from the varied perspectives of women’s experiences. “ Feminist sexual politics currently negotiate among pleasures, dangers, identities, and commerce through a range of strategies, united by a search for female sexual self- determination”. During the Victorian era, sexual respectability required that white middle- class women remain demure,
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