SOC Study Guide 2 - Derek Benjamins Independent variable...

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Sexuality Now: Embracing Diversity
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Chapter 9 / Exercise 5
Sexuality Now: Embracing Diversity
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Derek Benjamins Independent variable : the variable believed to affect the dependent variable - the one the researcher manipulates to see if it makes the dependent variable change Dependent variable : the variable changed by the independent variable - the one the researcher is trying to measure Research Methods Survey - data collected through questionnaires or interviews Advantages: - Large populations can be studied - Sample means (average) - Results can be generalized - Cheap Disadvantages: - Cannot provide in-depth information about people’s behavior or experiences - Be careful of validity Experiment - a research situation designed to elicit some sort of behavior under closely controlled laboratory circumstances Advantages: - Experimenter is able to control other variables so causal relationship can be studied - Easy to replicate Disadvantages: - Not a natural environment - Many sociological concepts can not be measured in a lab Field Research - (participant and non-participant observation) a researcher directly observes people in their natural settings Advantages: - Provides detailed and descriptive understandings of people's everyday lives - generally inexpensive to conduct Disadvantages: - Time consuming - Difficult to replicate - Difficult to generalize to other groups - Particularly susceptible to ethical issues (privacy) Causality: the cause of something - indicates that one event is the result of the occurrence of the other event Correlation: a relationship or connection between two or more measures Material Culture: includes physical artifacts that shape or reflect the lives of members of a particular society (constantly changing - quickly) Non-material Culture: non-physical products of society that are created over time and shared - knowledge/beliefs; values/morals; norms/customs (change slowly and over a long period of time) Nature vs Nurture (biological vs. social/environmental) - Who we are is dependent upon both our physical/psychological characteristics and our environment - Nature refers to innate qualities like human or genetics - Nurture refers to care given by parents or, more broadly, to environmental influences such as media and marketing 1. Disagreements associated with the debate : debates whether an individual’s innate qualities or personal experiences are more important in determining physical and behavioral traits Socialization : process through which one learns how to act according to the rules and expectations of a particular culture Agents of Socialization : family, school, peers, and mass media are the most influential things throughout our life, especially during childhood - surroundings strongly influence who we become 1. These have changed over time because in traditional society family was far more of an influential part of
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Sexuality Now: Embracing Diversity
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Chapter 9 / Exercise 5
Sexuality Now: Embracing Diversity
Carroll
Expert Verified

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