CLINICAL NEUROANATOMY made ridiculously simple Stephen Goldberg, M.D.
CON TENT S Preface .. .. .. . ... . . . . . ... . .. . . • .. . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter General Orga nization 3 2 Blood Supply. Meninges and Spinal Flui d. . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 8 3 Spinal Cord , 19 4 Brain Stem . . . . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . . . . .. . . ... . . .. •. . . .. . . . . • .. ... . 28 S Visual System . . . . ... .. ..... . ... ... ... .. ... .. . . . . . .•.. .. . ... 45 6 Autonomic System and Hypothalamus . . .. •. . • . .. . . . . •. . • . . . . . . 60 7 Cerebellum, Basal Ganglia and Thalamus ... . .... • . . •. • .... ..• . . 67 8 Cerebral Ccnex . . . . . . .. . . . . . •. . . . .. .. . . • . . . . . . . . . ... . . ..... . 71 9 Clinical Review .• .. .. . . .. . . . ... .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . ... . .. ... . ... .74 Glossary .. .• . .. . ... . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. . .... . . . ..• . . . . .. . ...•. . . ... .85 Index 88
PREFACE Clinical Neuroanato my Made Ridiculously Si mpl e is a book intended.to help medical students rapidly master that par t of neur oan atom y that is es- sential to clinical care. It is also of practical value to nurses and paramedical per sonn el who ar e co nf ronted with neurological prob lems. This boo k was written to fulfill the need for a bri ef , but readable. summary of clinically relevan tn euroanatomy, with ex amp les of medical cases. It is common for neuro anat omy texts to be too greatly ori ented toward basic science. They provide far more detail than is necess ar y to appr oach clinical situations in neurology. As a result the student becomes co nfused by mazes of circuitries. ofte n unable to see clinical neuroa natomy as a composite whole and unable to remember essential features. The student requires two types of books when studyi ng the basic sciences . One is a large. standard reference text ..... hich treats the subject as a basic science. Clinical Neuroanatomy Made Ridiculously Simple is of the second type , a very small boo k ..... hich f ocu ses directly on the clinically pertinent aspects of that basic science. It is not a syno psis of neuroanatomy; synopses simply condense larger book s and ar e insufficient for the medical student's needs. Smal ler, clinically-oriented book s must elimin ate tho se as pects of the basic science which have little clinical bea ring and emphasize those aspects vital to patient care. Co nsequently. this book underemphasizes the inte rna l circ uitry of the cerebellum , th alamu s. and basic ganglia as such knowledge helps little in dealings with neurological problems. However, major orga ni- zation of the spinal cord and brain stem is strongly emphasized, as this knowledge is vital in neurological localization and diagnosis. The majo r pat hways in the spinal cord are presented simultaneously, rath er tha n in succession, to facilitate comparisons amo ng the pat hways. Thr ee of the seven categories of the mot or and sensory nuclei have been eliminated in the radi- cally different presentat ion of the brain stem as a modified spinal cord with only f our categories of nuclei: somatic malor, visceral motor, somatic sensory, and visceral sensory. Th e mnemonics and hum or in this boo k do not intend any disrespect for patients or or iginal investigators. They are employed as an educational device, as it is well known that the best memory techniques involve the use of ridicu- lous associations. It is unf ortuna te that this a pproach is not att empt ed more frequently in medical educat ion.
CHAPTER 1. GENERAL ORGANIZATION
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