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anthro notes - Anthropology Notes The History of...

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Anthropology Notes The History of Anthropology Karl Von Linne (Carolus Linnaeus) 1707-1778. Swedish botanist and zoologist Father of Taxonomy • The taxonomic system and its impact on anthropology…. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) Enlightenment Philosopher The Noble Savage Humans in nature?? Count Buffon (1707-1788) Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802) Introduction of the mutability of species. Jean- Baptiste… Lamarck (1744-1829) Organic evolution Inheritance of acquired characteristics Lamarck was the first person to work out a theory of descent as an independent scientific theory. On the other hand he was unable to prove his hypotheses with factual evidence. Charles Lyell (1797-1875) Uniformitarianism– Geological processes observed in the present are the same as those obtained in the past. Forces such as wind, erosion, flooding, frost, decomposition of vegetable matter, glacial movements, volcanoes etc., all contributed to produce the geological landscape we see today. The concept of “Deep Time” Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) Theory of evolution by natural selection. All living things show variation; no two species are alike. All species are capable of producing offspring faster than the food supply increases. Because the population grows faster than the food supply there is a fierce struggle for existence and those with more favorable variations in size, strength, running ability, etc. will have a better chance to survive and reproduce. Favorable variations are inherited and passed on to the next generation. Over long periods of geologic time, the successful variations produce great differences that result in new species.
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Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) Survival of the fittest. All things progress from simple to complex Social Evolution – Society as an evolving organism Edward Burnett Tylor (1832-1917) and Lewis Henry Morgan (1818-1881)
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