FLG 330 REASEARCHASSIGNMENTCERVICAL CANCERUNIVERSITY OF PRETORIA[Company address]
BACK GROUNDWhat is cervical cancerThe cervix is the lower part of the utrus. There are two types of cell that cover the cervis which are the squamouse epithelia cell and glandular cell. This two cell meet at a zon call the transformation zone. The transformation zone is the zone where most cervical cancer start. These cell donot change suddently in cancer. They first change into pre cancerous gradually and later change into cancer. The change can be detected by pap test and treated to prevent development of cancer. There are two types of cervical cancer which are known as the squamous cell carcinoma and adenno carcinomaCervical adenno carcinoma is more commom.even though cervical cancer develop from pre cancer cell, only few women with pre cancer of the cervix will develop into cancer which take several years but it can happen in less than year. For most women the pre cancer cell will go away without treatment.The development of normal human cells mostly depends on the information contained in thecells’ chromosomes. Chromosomes are large molecules of DNA. DNA is the chemical thatcarries the instructions Some genes (packets of our DNA) have instructions for controlling when our cells grow and divide . genes that promote cell division are called oncogenes. Others that slow down cell division or cause cells to die at the right time are called tumor suppressor genes.Cancers can be caused by DNA mutations (gene defects) that turn on oncogenes or turn off tumorsuppressor genes.HPV causes the production of 2 proteins known as E6 and E7 which turn off some tumorsuppressor genes. This may allow the cervical lining cells to grow too much and to developchanges in additional genes, which in some cases will lead to cancer. But HPV does not completely explain what causes cervical cancer. Most women with HPV don’t get cervical cancer, and certain other risk factors, like smoking and HIV infection, influence which women exposed to HPV are more likely to develop cervical cancer.OBJECTIVEThe aim of this study is to review and sumarise the risk factors that are associated with cervical cancer in women and tobdiscuss the important of HPV vaccination and also to identify the following:1.the relationship of cervical cancer development with age2.the relationship of cervical cancer with reproductive factors such as the age at marriage,number of sexual partners,, the use of contraceptives3.the relationship of cervical cancer and sexual traansmited disease and other co-morbit conditions.What are the risk factors associated with cervical acncer?A risk factor is anything that changes your chance of getting a disease such as cancer.