Diff. Antibodies, Nomenclature 16-05-2019.pptx - Antibodies Nomenclature Year 1 Course code Semester 2 PPCC 6420203 Dr Nabila Perveen 1 Topic Learning

Diff. Antibodies, Nomenclature 16-05-2019.pptx - Antibodies...

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Antibodies, Nomenclature Year 1 Semester 2 Course code PPCC 6420203 Dr. Nabila Perveen 23-05-2019 1
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Summarize the classification and application pro-drugs. explain the structure and function of antibodies. name drugs as per IUPAC, USAN, WHO and INN. Topic Learning outcomes 23-05-2019 2
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Antigens: at the amino terminal of the chains of antibodies, there is a highly variable region of amino acids. This region recognizes and binds to particular chemical groupings on the invader. These groupings are called “ antigens “ .Once an antigen is recognized, the antibody binds to it and recruits the body’s immune response to destroy the foreign cell. ALL CELLS (INCLUDING OURS) HAVE ANTIGENS ON THEIR OUTER SURFACE . 23-05-2019 3
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Toxin : a substance which is toxic or poisonous to the cell. Toxins can be small molecules , peptides , or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body tissues interacting with biological macromolecules such as enzymes or cellular receptors . Toxins vary greatly in their toxicity , ranging from usually minor (such as a bee sting ) to almost immediately deadly (such as botulinum toxin ( bacterium , Clostridium botulinum ). 23-05-2019 4
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Toxoid : is a compound in which the toxic or poisonous properties of toxin are removed. A toxoid is an inactivated toxin (usually an exotoxin ) whose toxicity has been suppressed either by chemical or heat treatment , while other properties, typically immunogenicity , are maintained. Toxins are secreted by bacteria, whereas toxoids are altered form of toxins; toxoids are not secreted by bacteria. 23-05-2019 5
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Antibodies : can come in different varieties known as ISOTYPES or classes . In placental mammals there are five antibody isotypes known as IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. They are each named with an "Ig" prefix that stands for immunoglobulin (a name sometimes used interchangeably with antibody). They differ in their biological properties , functional locations and ability to deal with different antigens . 23-05-2019 6
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The different suffixes of the antibody isotypes denote the different types of heavy chains the antibody contains, with each heavy chain class named alphabetically: α (alpha), γ (gamma), δ (delta), ε (epsilon), and μ (mu). The antibody isotype of a β cell changes during cell development and activation . 23-05-2019 7
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Active immunization : is the induction of immunity after exposure to an antigen.
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