Middle Colonies.ppt - Ms Susan M Pojer Horace Greeley HS...

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Unformatted text preview: Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY New York Settling the Middle [or “Restoration”] Colonies Old Netherlanders at New Netherlands 1600s Golden Age of Dutch history. Major commercial and naval power. Challenging England on the seas. 3 major Anglo-Dutch Wars Major colonial power [mainly in the East Indies]. Henry Hudson’s Voyages New Netherlands New Netherlands founded in the Hudson River area (16231624) Established by Dutch West India Company for quick-profit fur trade. Company wouldn’t pay much attention to the colony. Manhattan [New Amsterdam] Purchased by Company for pennies per (22,000) acre. New Amsterdam Harbor, Company town 1639 run in interests of the stockholders. No interest in religious toleration, free speech, or democracy. Governors appointed by the Company were autocratic. Religious dissenters against Dutch Reformed Church [including Quakers] were persecuted. Local assembly with limited power to make laws established after repeated protests by colonists. New Amsterdam, 1660 Characteristics of New Amsterdam: Aristocratic patroonships [feudal estates granted to promoters who would settle 50 people on them]. Cosmopolitan diverse population with many different languages. New York Manors & Land Grants Patroonships New Netherlands & New Sweden Swedes in New Netherlands Mid-1600s Sweden in Golden Age settled small, under-funded colony [called “New Sweden”] near New Netherland. 1655 Dutch under director-general Peter Stuyvesant attack New Sweden. Main fort fell after bloodless siege. New Sweden absorbed into New Netherland. New Netherlands Becomes a British Royal Colony Charles II granted New Netherland’s land to his brother, the Duke of York, [before he controlled the area!] 1664 English soldiers arrived. Dutch had little ammunition and poor defenses. Stuyvesant forced to surrender without firing a shot. Renamed “New York” England gained strategic harbor between her northern & southern colonies. England now controlled the Atlantic Duke of York’s Original Charter New Amsterdam, 1664 Dutch Residue in New York Early 20 Dutch Revival c Building in NYC. New York City seal. Names Harlem, Brooklyn Architecture gambrel roof Customs Easter eggs, Santa Claus, waffles, bowling, sleighing, skating, kolf [golf]. Pennsylva nia The Quakers Called Quakers because they “quaked” during intense religious practices. They offended religious & secular leaders in England. Refused to pay taxes to support the Church of England. They met without paid clergy Believed all were children of God refused to treat the upper classes with deference. Keep hats on. Addressed them as commoners ”thees”/“thous.” Wouldn’t take oaths. William Penn Aristocratic Englishman. 1660 – attracted to the Quaker faith. Embraced Quakerism after military service. 1681 he received a grant from king to establish a colony. This settled a debt the king owed his father. Named Pennsylvania [“Penn’s Woodland”]. He sent out paid agents and advertised for settlers his pamphlets were pretty honest. Royal Land Grant to Penn Penn & Native Americans Bought [didn’t simply take] land from Indians. Quakers went among the Indians unarmed. BUT…….. non-Quaker Europeans flooded PA Treated native peoples poorly. This undermined the actions of the Quakers! Penn’s Treaty with the Native Americans Government of Pennsylvania Representative assembly elected by landowners. No tax-supported church. Freedom of worship guaranteed to all. Forced to deny right to vote & hold office to Catholics & Jews by English govt. Death penalty only for treason & murder. Compared to 200 capital crimes in England! Pennsylvanian Society Attracted many different people Religious misfits from other colonies. Many different ethnic groups. No provision for military defense. No restrictions on immigration. No slavery!! “Blue Laws” [sumptuary laws] against stage plays, cards, dice, excessive hilarity, etc. A society that gave its citizens economic opportunity, civil liberty, & religious freedom!! Philadelphia & Boston Compared Urban Population Growth 1650 - 1775 New Jersey New Jersey — PA’s Neighbor 1664 aristocratic proprietors rcvd. the area from the Duke of York. Many New Englanders [because of worn out soil] moved to NJ. 1674 West NJ sold to Quakers. East NJ eventually acquired by Quakers. 1702 E & W NJ combined into NJ and created one colony. Delaware Delaware — PA’s Neighbor Named after Lord De La Warr [harsh military governor of VA in 1610]. Closely associated with Penn’s colony. 1703 granted its own assembly. Remained under the control of PA until the American Revolution. Ethnic Groups The Carolinas The West Indies Way Station to Mainland America 1670 a group of small English farmers from the West Indies arrived in Carolina. Were squeezed out by sugar barons. Brought a few black slaves and a model of the Barbados slave code with them. Names for King Charles II. The King granted Carolina to 8 supporters [Lord Proprietors]. They hoped to use Carolina to supply their plantations in Barbados with food and export wine, silk, and olive oil to Settling the “Lower South” Colonizing the Carolinas Carolina developed close economic ties to the West Indies. Many Carolinian settlers were originally from the West Indies. They used local Savannah Indians to enslave other Indians [about 10,000] and send them to the West Indies [and some to New England]. 1707 Savannah Indians decided to migrate to PA. PA promised better relations with whites. Carolinians decided to “thin” the Savannahs before they could leave bloody raids killed most of them by 1710. Port of Charles Town, SC Also named for King Charles II of England. Became the busiest port in the South. City with aristocratic feel. Religious toleration attracted diverse inhabitants. Crops of the The primary export. Carolinas: Rice was still an exotic Rice food in England. Was grown in Africa, so planters imported West African slaves. These slaves had a genetic trait that made them immune to malaria. American Long Grain Rice By 1710 black slaves were a majority in Carolina. Crops of the Carolinas: Indigo In colonial times, the main use for indigo was as a dye for spun cotton threads that were woven into cloth for clothes. Today in the US, the main use for indigo is a dye for cotton work clothes & blue jeans. Rice & Indigo Exports from SC & GA: 16981775 Conflict With Spanish Florida Catholic Spain hated the mass of Protestants on their borders. Anglo-Spanish Wars The Spanish conducted border raids on Carolina. Either inciting local Native Americans to attack or attacking themselves. By 1700 Carolina was too strong to be wiped out by the Spanish! The Emergence of North Carolina Northern part of Carolina shared a border with VA VA dominated by aristocratic planters who were generally Church of England members. Dissenters from VA moved south to northern Carolina. Poor farmers with little need for slaves. Religious dissenters. Distinctive traits of North Carolinians Irreligious & hospitable to pirates. Strong spirit of resistance to authority. Georgia 18c Southern Colonies Late-Coming Georgia Founded in 1733. Last of the 13 colonies. Named in honor of King George II. Founded by James Oglethorpe. Georgia--The “Buffer” Colony Chief Purpose of Creating Georgia: As a “buffer” between the valuable Carolinas & Spanish Florida & French Louisiana. Received subsidies from British govt. to offset costs of defense. Export silk and wine. A haven for debtors thrown in to prison. Determined to keep slavery out! Slavery found in GA by 1750. The Port City of Savannah Diverse community. All Christians except Catholics enjoyed religious toleration. Missionaries worked among debtors and Indians most famous was John ...
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