studyguide2 - LIPIDS 1. Describe how lipids can function to...

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LIPIDS 1. Describe how lipids can function to produce aeration in some food products. Lipids produce aeration in baked goods through the creaming process. In this process, lipid and sugar are mixed at a very high rate, thus incorporating air into the mixture. The lipid properties help trap the air, and much of it is retained throughout the baking process 2. Describe the overall shape triglycerides assume when forming crystals in food products. Identify the three most common types of triglyceride crystals found in most foods. What is bloom? One glycerol, three fatty acids – tuning fork, chair Alpha, BetaPrime, Beta Bloom is the white cocoa crystals that form on chocolate when it isn’t stored properly 3. Describe the overall desirable flavor and mouth feel functional properties of food lipids. Lipids bring a rich flavor into foods. Lubrication – melt in your mouth 4. How does oil function to enhance heat transfer in foods which are deep-fat fried? When a food is deep-fat fried, the water in the food is quickly replaced with boiling hot oil, which is why deep fat frying is usually a very fast ordeal. 5. Describe the role of fats and oils in determining tenderization and flakiness in foods. Flaky – many thin pieces of cooked dough Tender – easily crushed/chewed; soft and fragile 6. Describe how lecithin functions as an emulsifier in foods. How is lecithin produced commercially. Compare the overall structure of lecithin to triglycerides. Describe the two types of emulsions that can occur in foods; give examples of foods which belong to each type. Lecithin acts as an emulsifier in foods by bringing together the water and oil components of food. It is the ingredient used in chocolates that give the “melt in your mouth” mouthfeel Two types of emulsions: O/W – mayonnaise and W/O – margarine FAT REPLACERS 1. Describe the various carbohydrate-based fat replacers currently used as food ingredients. Describe how use of starch-based fat replacers can considerably lower the calorie content of a food. What are dextrins and maltodextrins? What are the advantages of the use of pectin as a fat replacer? What is polydextrose? What are the advantages of the use of polydextrose as a fat replacer?
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Oatrim – hydrolysis of starch containing part of bran from whole oats – 5% beta glucan Starch, cellulose, gums – thickeners and stabilizers; act as emulsifiers Dextrin – low molecular weight carb produced from hydrolysis of starch; maltodextrins – sweet carb from partially hydrogenated starch, thickening agants The advantages of using pectin as a fat replacer is that it acts as a lubricant and does not promote the drying sensation of the starch-based fat replacers Polydextrose – mix of glucose, Sorbitol and citric acid; bulking agent, humectant, replace sugar and/or fat; ¼ cal of sugar 2. Describe how Simplesse is produced and how this food ingredient functions as a fat replacer. Describe applications in which Simplesse cannot usually be used. What are the benefits of Simplesse 100?
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2008 for the course FST 2014 taught by Professor Wneigel during the Spring '07 term at Virginia Tech.

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studyguide2 - LIPIDS 1. Describe how lipids can function to...

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