Comm 108 - Comm 108 10/2/07 Communication Theories and...

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Comm 108 10/2/07 Communication Theories and Models Evolution of Comm Models: Two Key Changes - Researchers initially focused on communication as a single effect. Evolved to focusing on the process of communication. - Earlier models suggested simple, one size fits all explanations. Later models added complexity and conditions. The Lasswell Formula (1948) communicator message medium receiver effect Benefits: - Offers a starting point for other models to build upon - Recognizes multiple stages influence the communication effect - Highlights areas of research specialization. Problems: BIG PROBLEM – no feedback! - Too sharply delineates stages from one another - Represents communication as a linear, unidirectional process. - Overemphasizes effects Shannon and Weaver Model (1949) Benefits: - Provides a mathematical model of communication - Recognizes the presence of noise - Addresses encoding and decoding stages. Problems: - Overemphasizes technological in/efficiencies. - Represents communication as a linear, unidirectional process. - Ignores meaning of message - Stresses transmission function of a communication Other Notes: - technical, conversational, and semantic types of noise - Noise is visual or auditory - noise can be lack of noise - Ex of noise: the cocktail party effect the ability to block out the noise and engage in conversation, but attention can be drawn back in by certain cues - DeFleur expanded this model to include feedback function. Osgood and Schramm Circular Model (1954) Benefits: - Recognizes communication as a two-way process. - Suggests both sender and receiver satisfy multiple roles. - Focuses on people not channels. - Addresses semantic noise. Problems: - Even using same language, people can get the meaning wrong. - Suggests that communication starts and ends at the same point. - Assumes equality among communicators. Other: - Semantic noise- when the meaning of the message is interpreted incorrectly. - Power differentials in almost every relationship which affects feedback Dance’s Helix Model (1967) - Recognizes limitations of circular model. - Emphasizes dynamic nature of communication. - Illustrates that actors learn more and more as a conversation proceeds. - Implies that communication is continuous, unrepeatable, additive, and accumulative.
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Problems: - may not be a model at all: too few variables Gerbner’s General Model (1956) - Highlights perception and context effects. - Identifies basic building blocks of communication - someone - perceives an event and - reacts - in a situation - through some means - to make available materials - in some form and - context - conveying content - with some consequence Newcomb’s ABX Model (1953) - Explains WHY we communicate. -
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Comm 108 - Comm 108 10/2/07 Communication Theories and...

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