[Joan_C._Chrisler,_Donald_R._McCreary]_Handbook_of(BookFi).pdf - Handbook of Gender Research in Psychology Joan C Chrisler Donald R McCreary Editors

[Joan_C._Chrisler,_Donald_R._McCreary]_Handbook_of(BookFi).pdf

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Unformatted text preview: Handbook of Gender Research in Psychology Joan C. Chrisler . Donald R. McCreary Editors Handbook of Gender Research in Psychology Volume 1: Gender Research in General and Experimental Psychology 123 Editors Joan C. Chrisler Department of Psychology Connecticut College 270 Mohegan Avenue New London CT 06320 USA [email protected] Donald R. McCreary Department of Psychology Brock University St. Catharines ON Canada York University Toronto ON Canada [email protected] ISBN 978-1-4419-1464-4 e-ISBN 978-1-4419-1465-1 DOI 10.1007/978-1-4419-1465-1 Springer New York Dordrecht Heidelberg London Library of Congress Control Number: 2009941984 © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010 All rights reserved. This work may not be translated or copied in whole or in part without the written permission of the publisher (Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013, USA), except for brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis. Use in connection with any form of information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed is forbidden. The use in this publication of trade names, trademarks, service marks, and similar terms, even if they are not identified as such, is not to be taken as an expression of opinion as to whether or not they are subject to proprietary rights. Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media ( ) Contents 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Donald R. McCreary and Joan C. Chrisler Part I 1 History of Psychology 2 Emergence and Development of the Psychology of Women . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alexandra Rutherford and Leeat Granek 19 3 Emergence and Development of the Psychology of Men and Masculinity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sam V. Cochran 43 4 Emergence and Development of the Psychological Study of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kristin A. Hancock and Karen Greenspan 59 Part II Research Methods 5 Quantitative Approaches to the Study of Gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sarah K. Murnen and Linda Smolak 81 6 Qualitative Inquiry in Gender Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mary M. Gergen 103 7 Measuring Gender: Options and Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Andrew P. Smiler and Marina Epstein 133 8 Cross-Cultural Research Methods and the Study of Gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gordon B. Forbes 9 Gender Diverse Recruitment to Research Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deborah J. Bowen, Chanita Hughes Halbert, Alecia Robinson, and Uli Boehmer 10 Interpreting and Communicating the Results of Gender-Related Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Peter Hegarty and Felicia Pratto 159 179 191 v vi Part III Contents Brain and Behavior 11 The Physiology of Sex Differences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deborah Saucier and Crystal Ehresman 215 12 Sex and Gender in Sensation and Perception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Joseph A. Schroeder 235 13 On Tending to Our Scientific Knitting: Thinking About Gender in the Context of Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nora S. Newcombe Part IV 259 Learning, Education, and Cognitive Processes 14 Gender in the Classroom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Susan A. Basow 277 15 Gender and Academic Abilities and Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heather A. Priess and Janet Shibley Hyde 297 16 Gender, Spatial Abilities, and Wayfinding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carol A. Lawton 317 17 Gender and Creativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mark A. Runco, Bonnie Cramond, and Alexander R. Pagnani 343 Part V Communication 18 Words Matter: The Language of Gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Christine A. Smith, Ingrid Johnston-Robledo, Maureen C. McHugh, and Joan C. Chrisler 361 19 She Said, He Said: Gender, Language, and Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maureen C. McHugh and Jennifer Hambaugh 379 20 Gender, Power, and Nonverbal Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Marianne Schmid Mast and Sabine Sczesny 411 Part VI Emotion and Motivation 21 Gender, Emotion, and Socialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Leslie R. Brody and Judith A. Hall 429 22 Sex and Gender Differences in Eating Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Peter Herman and Janet Polivy 455 23 Gender Differences in Sexuality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jennifer Petersen and Janet Shibley Hyde 471 Part VII Lifespan Development 24 Gender Identity and Stereotyping in Early and Middle Childhood . . . . . . . . . May Ling Halim and Diane Ruble 495 Contents 25 Gender in Adolescence: Applying a Person-in-Context Approach to Gender Identity and Roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Katherine H. Clemans, Laura M. DeRose, Julia A. Graber, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn vii 527 26 Gender, Adult Development, and Aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Abigail J. Stewart and Nicky J. Newton 559 Author Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581 Subject Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 661 Contributors Alisha Ali New York University, New York, NY, USA Nancy Lynn Baker Fielding Graduate University, Santa Barbara, CA, USA Susan A. Basow Lafayette College, Easton, PA, USA Uli Boehmer Boston University, Boston, MA, USA Meg A. Bond University of Massachusetts Lowell, University Avenue Lowell, MA, USA Deborah J. Bowen Boston University, Boston, MA, USA Leslie R. Brody Boston University, Boston, MA, USA Gary R. Brooks Baylor University, Waco, TX, USA Jeanne Brooks-Gunn Columbia University, New York, NY, USA Cynthia M. Bruns Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA, USA Jennifer A. Bunk West Chester University, West Chester, PA, USA Rachel M. Calogero University of Kent, Kent, UK Paula J. Caplan Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA Linda L. Carli Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA, USA Kate Carroll Big Brothers Big Sisters, Southeastern PA, USA Joan C. Chrisler Connecticut College, New London, CT, USA Katherine H. Clemans University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Sam V. Cochran University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA Kenneth M. Cohen Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA Scott Coltrane University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA Bonnie Cramond University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA Sharon Danoff-Burg University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY, USA Anita DeLongis University of British Columbia, BC, Canada Kristoffer Denboske John Jay College of Criminal Justice, New York, NY, USA ix x Contributors Laura M. DeRose Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Lauren E. Duncan Smith College, Northampton, MA, USA Alice H. Eagly Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA Crystal Ehresman University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB, Canada Heather Eisele University of Missouri, St. Louis, MO, USA Matt Englar-Carlson California State University, Fullerton, CA, USA Marina Epstein University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Rachel Fagnant Metropolitan Council on Jewish Poverty, New York City, NY, USA Angela R. Febbraro Defence R&D Canada, Toronto, ON, Canada Gordon B. Forbes Millikin University, Decatur, IL, USA Irene Hanson Frieze University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Jessica A. Gallus University of Connecticut, Storrs-Mansfield, CT, USA Mary M. Gergen Pennsylvania State University, Media, PA, USA Diane L. Gill University of North Carolina, Greensboro, NC, USA Ritu M. Gill Defence R&D Canada, Toronto, ON, Canada Julia A. Graber University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Leeat Granek Princess Margaret Hospital and Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada Karen Greenspan John F. Kennedy University, Pleasant Hill, CA, USA Dara N. Greenwood University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Chanita Hughes Halbert University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA May Ling Halim New York University, New York, NY, USA Judith A. Hall Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA Jennifer Hambaugh Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, PA, USA Kristin A. Hancock John F. Kennedy University, Pleasant Hill, CA, USA Mark L. Hatzenbuehler Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA Kenneth V. Heard University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA Peter Hegarty University of Surrey, Guildford, England, UK C. Peter Herman University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Lori M. Hilt Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA Dawn M. Howerton University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA Vivian S. Hwang University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY, USA Contributors Janet Shibley Hyde University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA Ingrid Johnston-Robledo State University of New York, Fredonia, NY, USA Cindra S. Kamphoff Minnesota State University, Mankato, MN, USA Ronit Kark Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel Ellyn Kaschak Department of Psychology, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA, USA Carol A. Lawton Indiana University-Purdue University, Fort Wayne, IN, USA Christina Lee University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Man Yu Li Chinese University, Hong Kong, China Julia R. Lippman University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Vicki J. Magley University of Connecticut, Storrs-Mansfield, CT, USA Tara C. Marshall Brunel University, Kingston Ln, Uxbridge, UK Janelle L. Mason Fielding Graduate University, Santa Barbara, CA, USA Marianne Schmid Mast University of Neuchatel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland Donald R. McCreary Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, Canada; York University, Toronto, ON, Canada Maureen C. McHugh Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, PA, USA Andrea L. Meltzer University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA Ryan S. Mitchell Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA Sarah K. Murnen Kenyon College, Gambier, OH, USA Nora S. Newcombe Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA Nicky J. Newton University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Susan Nolen-Hoeksema Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA Alexander R. Pagnani University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA Seth T. Pardo Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA Jennifer Petersen University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA Bill E. Peterson Smith College, Northampton, MA, USA Janet Polivy University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Felicia Pratto University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA Heather A. Priess University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA Kate Richmond Muhlenberg College, Allentown, PA, USA Alecia Robinson Boston University, Boston, MA, USA Diane Ruble New York University, New York, NY, USA xi xii Contributors Mark A. Runco University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA Alexandra Rutherford York University, Toronto, ON, Canada Deborah Saucier University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB, Canada Ritch C. Savin-Williams Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA Robert Scholz Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA, USA Joseph A. Schroeder Connecticut College, New London, CT, USA Sabine Sczesny University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland Kristy Y. Shih Department of Sociology, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA Louise B. Silverstein Yeshiva University, Brooklyn, NY, USA Andrew P. Smiler Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Christine A. Smith University of Wisconsin, Green Bay, WI, USA Linda Smolak Kenyon College, Gambier, OH, USA Jayne E. Stake University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA Mark A. Stevens California State University, Northridge, CA, USA Abigail J. Stewart University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA J. Kevin Thompson Department of Psychology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA Cheryl Brown Travis University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA Zhana Vrangalova Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA Sharon M. Wasco University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, USA Helen M.G. Watt Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Amy Zwicker University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada About the Editors Joan C. Chrisler is Class of 1943 Professor of Psychology at Connecticut College. She has published extensively on gender roles, attitudes toward menstruation and menopause, women’s health and embodiment, and other topics. She has edited seven previous books, most recently Lectures on the Psychology of Women (4th ed., 2008, McGraw-Hill) and Women over 50: Psychological Perspectives (2007, Springer). She has served as editor of Sex Roles and on the editorial boards of Psychology of Women Quarterly, Sex Roles, Psychology of Men & Masculinity and Teaching of Psychology. Dr. Chrisler is a fellow of the Association for Psychological Science and the American Psychological Association (Divisions 1, 2, 9, 35, 38, 46, 52). Donald R. McCreary is an adjunct professor of psychology at Brock University and York University. He has published extensively on gender roles, the psychology of men, and other topics. He has co-edited one previous book, Applied Social Psychology (1997, Prentice Hall). He has served as associate editor of Psychology of Men & Masculinity and of the International Journal of Men’s Health and is a member of the Editorial Boards of Sex Roles, Journal of Men’s Studies, and Body Image. Dr. McCreary is a fellow of the American Psychological Association (Division 51). xiii About the Contributors Alisha Ali, Ph.D. is associate professor of applied psychology at New York University. She conducts research on women’s mental health with a particular focus on the effects of poverty, abuse, and selfsilencing on women’s depression. Her work has been published widely, and her research funding includes grants from the National Institute of Mental Health, Eli Lilly, and the Allstate Foundation. Nancy L. Baker, Ph.D., ABPP is director of the forensic concentration at Fielding Graduate University. She has served as chairperson of the APA Committee on Women in Psychology and as president of the Society for the Psychology of Women (APA Division 35). Her work focuses on the interplay of those things generally called gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and social class. Susan A. Basow, Ph.D. is Charles A. Dana Professor of Psychology at Lafayette College. She is a social/counseling psychologist who specializes in gender issues. She is the author of the textbook Gender: Stereotypes and Roles and has published many research articles on women’s body issues and on how gender issues affect student ratings of professors. Dr. Basow is a fellow of four divisions of the American Psychological Association and has been an officer of the Society for the Psychology of Women (Div. 35). Uli Boehmer, Ph.D. is assistant professor of social and behavioral sciences at Boston University School of Public Health. Her research focuses on cancer survivorship and disparities, with a particular emphasis on disparities linked to sexual orientation. Currently she is the PI of three funded studies that focus on sexual orientation and breast cancer survivorship. Meg A. Bond, Ph.D. is professor of psychology, director of the Center for Women and Work at the University of Massachusetts Lowell and a resident scholar at the Brandeis University Women’s Studies Research Center. She is a community psychologist whose work focuses on the dynamics of gender and race/ethnicity in the workplace, sexual harassment, and collaboration among diverse constituencies in community settings; she is particularly interested in the articulation of a feminist community psychology. Deborah J. Bowen, Ph.D. is professor of social and behavioral sciences in the School of Public Health at Boston University and an investigator in the regional Cancer Prevention Network. She has been PI of several intervention projects on breast and ovarian cancer risk feedback and communications, on a web-based melanoma prevention study, and on community-wide studies of smoking cessation and dietary change. She is currently conducting community-based research to improve the health of native people in the Pacific Northwest, Alaska, and the northeastern United States. Leslie R. Brody, Ph.D. is professor of psychology at Boston University. She has served as director of the Boston University Clinical Psychology Ph.D. program and was the Marion Cabot Putnam Fellow at the Radcliffe Bunting Institute (1994–1995). Her research interests include gender and xv xvi About the Contributors ethnic differences in coping and emotion and the use of autobiographical narratives as a therapeutic tool. She has published widely about these issues, and she is well known for her book, Gender, Emotion, and the Family (1999, Harvard University Press). Gary R. Brooks, PhD, is professor of psychology at Baylor University; he worked for 28 years as a psychologist with the Central Texas VA Health Care System. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and has been president of two APA divisions (Family Psychology, Men and Masculinity). He has authored or coauthored five books, including The Centerfold Syndrome (1995), A New Psychotherapy for Traditional Men (1998), and The New Handbook of Counseling and Psychotherapy for Men (2001; 2005). Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Ph.D. is the Virginia and Leonard Marx Professor of Child Development and Education at Teachers College and the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University and director of the National Center for Children and Families ( ). Her research concerns factors that contribute to both positive and negative outcomes across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, with a particular focus on key social and biological transitions over the life course; she is also interested in the design and evaluation of intervention programs for children and parents. Cynthia M. Bruns, Ph.D. is coordinator of training for the APA internship program at the Central Washington University Counseling Center. She received her doctorate in clinical psychology from the California School of Professional Psychology where she specialized in women’s issues and feminist therapy. She has published articles in Women & Therapy and Lesbian Studies. She is an ad hoc reviewer for Women & Therapy and Sex Roles. Jennifer A. Bunk, Ph.D. is assistant professor of psychology at West Chester University of Pennsylvania. She is an industrial/organizational psychologist with a specialization in occupational health psychology. Her research interests include workplace stress, work–family conflict, and the experience and enactment of workplace incivility with particular focuses on cognitive appraisal and individual differences. Rachel M. Calogero, Ph.D. is a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Kent in Canterbury, UK. She has worked in the area of body image and eating disorders for 10 years, with particular interests in the role of self- and social objectification. Her research also focuses on broader social psychological processes, such as the role of open-mindedness vs. closed-mindedness in support for the status quo and specific health practices, such as the role of mindful exercise in the prevention of eating disorders. Paula J. Caplan, Ph.D. is a clinical and research psychologist. She has been a research associate at Harvard University’s DuBois Institute and professor of applied psychology and head of the Centre for Women’s Studies in Education at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. Dr. Caplan is the author or editor of 11 books, dozens of book chapters and articles in scholarly journals, and numerous articles and essays in popular publications. Linda L. Carli, Ph.D. is a social psychologist and has been a faculty member at Wellesley College since 1991...
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