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---------------------BECOMING BLACK POLITICAL SUBJECTS Movements and Ethno-Racial Rights in Colombia and Brazil TIANNA S. PASCHEL PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS PRINCETON AND OXFORD
-Copyright© 2016 by Princeton University Press Published by Princeton University Press, 41 William Street, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 In the United Kingdom: Princeton University Press, 6 Oxford Street, Woodstock, Oxfordshire OX20 1TW press.princeton.edu Jacket Art by Ilea Ferraz. All Rights Reserved Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Paschel, Tianna S., author. Title: Becoming black political subjects : movements and ethno-racial rights in Colombia and Brazil I Tianna S. Paschel. Description: Princeton : Princeton University Press, [2016] I Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2016007389 I ISBN 9780691169385 {hardcover: acid-free paper) Subjects: LCSH: Blacks-Colombia-Politics and government. I Blacks-Brazil-Politics and government. I Blacks-Race identity-Colombia. I Blacks-Race identity-Brazil. I Identity politics-Colombia. I Identity politics-Brazil. I Colombia-Politics and government-1974-I Brazil-Politics and government-1985-2002. I Brazil-Politics and government-2002-Classification: LCC F2299.B55 P37 2016 I DDC 305.896/0861-dc23 LC record available at British Library Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available This book has been composed in Saban Next LT Pro Printed on acid-free paper. oo Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 CONTENTS List of Organizations vu CHAPTER ONE Political Field Alignments 1 CHAPTER TWO Making Mestiza;es 28 CHAPTER THREE Black Movements in Colorblind Fields 47 CHAPTER FOUR The Multicultural Alignment 81 CHAPTER FIVE The Racial Equality Alignment 117 CHAPTER SIX Navigating the Ethno-Racial State 153 CHAPTER SEVEN Unmaking Black Political Subjects 189 CHAPTER EIGHT Rethinking Race, Rethinking Movements 220 Methodological Appendix 239 Notes 249 References 2 79 Acknowledgments 297 Index 303
-CHAPTER ONE POLITICAL FIELD ALIGNMENTS In 1991, black farmers and miners left the rural areas of Colombia's Pa-cific Coast, making their way to the capital city of Bogota. They took with them marimbas, drums, and songs about rural life and culture with the intention of serenading the delegates to the National Constituent Assembly. Their serenatas served one purpose: to convince those elected to draft Colombia's new constitution that the state should grant black com-munities specific rights. Ultimately, they succeeded, and the country's 1991 constitution recognized that black people, like indigenous peoples, were a distinct "ethnic group" whose right to collective territory was to be legally protected. The constitution also mandated the adoption of the Law of Black Communities (1993), which recognized thl' rights of rural black communi-ties to ethnic education, alternative development, natural resources, politi-cal participation, and local autonomy. This legislation profoundly disrupted the way that the Colombian state had imagined the nation for nearly a cen-tury, as racially mixed and culturally homogeneous.

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