Seminar & Workshop Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis Bandung, 23 Januari 2017 22/01/2017 1
Introduction of Phylogenetic adi pancoro ([email protected]) Sekolah Ilmu dan Teknologi Hayati-ITB Seminar & Workshop Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis 13 Desember 2016 22/01/2017 2
I. Evolution (Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace) •Evolution as descent with modification, implying relationships between organisms by unbroken genetic lines •Phylogenetics seeks to determine these genetic relationships Sketches by Charles Darwin 1837, Darwin's notebooks show an evolutionary tree Phylogenetic tree suggested by Haeckel(1866)., first publishes his phylogeny-based evolutionary tree, 22/01/2017 3
II. Evolution Theory •Speciation –Evolution of new organisms is driven by •Mutations •Selection bias –Speciation events lead to creation of different species –Speciation cause by physical separation into groups where different genetics variants become dominant. •Any two species share a common ancestor •The molecular clock hypothesis 22/01/2017 4
III. Phylogenetics •Phylogeneticsis the study of the evolutionary history and relationships among individuals or groups of organisms (e.g. Species or populations). •Phylogenetics is the study of evolutionary relationships among nucleotide or protein sequences. •These relationships are discovered through phylogenetic inference methods that evaluate observed heritable traits, such as morphology or DNA/ protein sequences under a model of evolution of these traits. •The result of these analyses is a phylogeny (also known as a phylogenetic tree) –a diagrammatic hypothesis about the history of the evolutionary relationships of a group of organisms. The tips of a phylogenetic tree can be living organisms or fossils, and represent the "end," or the present, in an evolutionary lineage. Source Wikipedia 22/01/2017 5
IV. Phylogenetic Tree Speciation Phylogenetics Phylogenetics Tree phylogenetic inference methods Phylogentic Tree : is a graph reflecting the approximate distances between a set of objects (species, families, genes and proteins) in a hierarchical fashion Branching represent speciation into two new species 22/01/2017 6
V. Tree TerminologyA B C D E F G H J I K Rooted Tree A B C E D F Unrooted Tree I J H G root Structure of rooted (A) and unrooted (B) phylogenetic tree. Both trees have the same topology. A rooted tree is usually drawn with the root to the left. A,B,C,D,E and F are external nodes or OTUs.