SOC 23 EXAM 1 study guide - SOC 23 EXAM 1 Chapter 1...

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SOC 23 EXAM 1 Chapter 1 Demography- the scientific study of human populations o Population size o Structure/composition o Development/changes Aging of population- ex. 2 monkeys, 2 elephants in the room (grandparents, parents Population size- how many people are in a given place o Absolute size: world pop—6.4 billion o Density o Distribution Structure- how many males and females there are of each age o Sex, age, race Population Change and Development- causes, consequences Population growth- how the number of people in that place is changing over time o Fertility, mortality, migration o Ex. State college population increases when school is in session o Ex. State college population decreases during winter/summer breaks The fundamental equation of demography- natural increase + net migration o Population growth= (P l -P o )=(B-D) + (I-O) Why is demography important?- is determines aspects of life o Terrorism and regional conflict- # of terrorists have increase since Iraq War o Reasons for young people to join terrorist groups- unemployment, lack of opportunities, feel of displacement, lack of economic opportunities “Dogs of War”- young me who get killed in War YAS- young age structure
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TRF- total fertility rate (average number of children born in each family) o Palestine has the highest fertility rate o Sub-Saharan Africa has one of the highest TFR in the world Age structure of the population-the young and the old o High fertility increases the size of population and increases YAS o Low fertility decreases size of population and decreases YAS Immigration controversy-more jobs available o Migration from L.D.C.s to M.D.C.s o Cultural diversity (most/least developed countries) Rapid population growth- malnutrition, unemployment, lack of opportunity Environmental degradation/Food scarcity- fighting over land/food, ecological footprint  environmental impact, desertification—deforestation Japan- population implosion: population decreasing (TFR-1.2, 1.5% of population are immigrants) Demographic time bomb- fertility drop aging of population o Pension premium- who is going to pay for yours? Urbanization- growth of cities; offer more economic opportunities, LCD urban revolution: more people are living in cities than anywhere else Globalization- products weaving, multinational companies and outsourcing o Higher fertility, bigger YAS-leads to cheap labor, most of the things we have are outsourced How is demography useful?- demographics of politics o Apportionment/Reapportionment of House of Representatives Seats (435 seats) Size of state pop. Determines # of House of Reps-bigger the state # of reps increases # of people in electoral college- 538 (# of electors in combined # of US senators and House of Reps Need 270 electoral votes in order to become president
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Demographics of Social Planning- o Schools and universities- # of people applying to University increases; California schools: highest # of Latin Americans, bilingual schools o
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2008 for the course SOC 023 taught by Professor Van hook during the Fall '07 term at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

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SOC 23 EXAM 1 study guide - SOC 23 EXAM 1 Chapter 1...

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