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Unformatted text preview: HPA 332 Exam 3 Chapter 9-Motivation • Motivation- psychological forces that determine the direction of a person’s behavior in an organization, a person’s level of effort, and a person’s level of persistence • Int rinsically motivated behavior- behavior that is performed for its own sake (the behavior itself) • Extrinsically motivated behavior- behavior that is performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishment (the consequence of behavior) • Outcome- anything a person gets from a job or organization • Input- anything a person contributes to his or her job or organization • Expectancy theory- the theory that motivation will be high when workers believe that high levels of effort lead to high performance and high performance leads to the attainment of desired outcomes • Expectancy- in expectancy theory, a perception about the extent to which effort results in a certain level of performance • Instrumentality- in expectancy theory, a perception about the extent to which performance results in the attainment of outcomes • Valence- in expectancy theory, how desirable each of the outcomes available from a job or organization is to a person • Need- a requirement or necessity for survival and well-being • Need theories- theories of motivation that focus on what needs people are t rying to satisfy at work and what outcomes will satisfy those needs • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs- an arrangement of five basic needs that according to Maslow, motivate behavior. Maslow proposed that the lowest level of unmet needs is the prime motivator and that only one level of needs is motivational at a time • Herzberg’s motivator-hygiene theory- a need theory that distinguishes between motivator needs (related to the nature of the work itself) and hygiene needs (related to the physical and psychological context in which he work is performed) and proposes that motivator needs must be met for motivation and job satisfaction to be high • Need for achievement- the extent to which an individual has a strong desire to perform challenging tasks well and to meet personal standards for excellence • Need for affiliation the extent to which an individual is concerned about establishing and maintaining good interpersonal relations, being liked, and having the people around him or her get along with each other • Need for power- the extent to which an individual desires to control or influence others • Equity theory- a theory of motivation that focuses on people’s perceptions of the fairness of their work outcomes relative to their work inputs • Equity- the justice, impartiality, and fairness to which all organizational members are entitled • Inequity- lack of fairness • Underpayment inequity- the inequity that exists when a person perceives that his or her own outcome-input ratio is less than the ratio of a referent • Overpayment inequity- the inequity that exists when a person perceives that his or her own outcome-input is greater than the ratio of a referent...
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- Fall '08
- Management, management information