Exam Notes - Section 2


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RATION BALANCING: SHORT AND SWEET KEY FACTORS A DRY MATTER INTAKE A ENERGY REQUIREMENTS A PROTEIN AND OTHER NUTRIENTS FUN WITH MATH! A Feed companies report nutrient concentrations on an air dry basis - 90% DM A Forage analyses reported on a DM basis A KEEP THE UNITS THE SAME! FEED ANALYSIS LISTED ON “AS FED” BASIS OR ON DM BASIS. A Convert DM% to as Fed % = Nutrient% X DM% A 10% CP X 89% DM = 8.9% CP ON AN AS FED BASIS A Convert as fed% to DM% = Nutrient % / DM% A 20%CP concentrate / .89 = 22.47%CP on DM Basis Remember which way the water is moving! A Convert as fed lb. to DM lb. (remove the water) A As fed lb. X DM % = DM lb. A 50 lb. C. Silage X 35% DM = 17.5 lb. of DM A Convert DM lb. to as fed lb. A DM lb. / DM%= As fed lb. A 20 lb. of C. Silage DM / 40% DM = 50 lb. as fed DRY MATTER INTAKE A Cow require Mcal NE and lb. of crude protein. ... but. .. A Need to know intake to provide proper concentration of nutrients to meet requirements LB. of dry matter X concentration of nutrient = Lb. of nutr. HOW MUCH DOES SHE EAT? A MEASURE INTAKE? A ESTIMATE USING PREDICTION EQUATIONS MEASURING INTAKE A Total mixed ration A no problem! - accurate scales? A Accurate forage test? - DM% A Conventional feeding - forages and concentrates fed separately A silage in the bunk, A Measure length of bunk, depth of bunk, weigh section of bunk and extrapolate to the rest A No. of cows with access to bunk A 100’ bunk, 350lb./5 ft. section - 350*20=7,000 lb. A 7,000 lb./100 cows - = 70 lb./cow FACTORS INFLUENCING INTAKE A COW SIZE? A STAGE OF LACTATION A LEVEL OF PRODUCTION A RATE OF GAIN A SEASON OF YEAR A FIBER CONTENT OF RATION A OTHER FACTORS? A FEED BUNK MANAGEMENT - CLEANING IT OUT A FEED BUNK SPACE A FEEDING FREQUENCY OTHER FACTORS A Feeding Management A Frequency of feeding A Clean out feed A Feed Bunk surface A Slope of feed bunk
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Feed bunk space? A Shade A Protection from sun and wind. PREDICTING DRY MATTER INTAKE - QUICK AND DIRTY DMI = .0185*BW + .305 *FCM FCM= LB. MILK *.4 + LB. FAT * 15 MONITORING DMI A Know what is fed, refused, consumed A Use a moisture tester A Use scales and make sure they work A Know how many cows are in the group. A Calculate DMI A Graph DMI BASIC STEPS IN RATION FORMULATION A Estimate dry matter intake - tables or actual A Estimate nutrient requirements - NRC A Balance for energy . .. calculate type and amount of concentrate necessary to compliment forage fed A Why energy first? A
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2008 for the course DASC 3274 taught by Professor Rejames during the Fall '07 term at Virginia Tech.

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