Exam Notes - Section 3

Exam Notes - Section 3 - Forage Quality Definition Source...

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Forage Quality?? o Definition: Source of nutrients supplied to the animal resulting in high performance milk production Palatability tastes good particle size, color, smell, no foreign objects, mold Digestibility Maturity of plant • cell wall increases and lignin increases g as % Absence of molds and other toxic Substances Objectives of forage program o Use land resources to the fullest - traditional definition Highest quality - year after year Highest yield of: DM, NE, CP DASC 3274 Fall 2006 A Lowest cost per unit of nutrient Cheap to supplement Lowest feed cost/cwt of milk Other forage decisions? t New crops? yield, N,P, and K use, soil conservation, $/ton GROW FORAGE OR PURCHASE? $$$$$ DASC 3274 Fall 2006 A Utilization of nutrients produced by cows in manure dictates growing in many situations What does forage quality mean? o Make cows milk? Increase feed efficiency Feed cost 1/2 the total cost of producing DASC 3274 Fall 2006 A milk Increase production per animal Increase production per acre What determines quality? o Cell wall
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protection and support for plant cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose DASC 3274 Fall 2006 • cellulose and hemicellulose are more digestible • lignin indigestible • rumen bugs digest structural CHO into VFA Cell contents – highly digestible! Protein, sugars, starches What determines quality? o Leaf to stem ratio leaves have less lignin = increase digestibility Plant maturity increase lignin = increase in fiber = decrease digestibility Tools to determine quality o Physical characteristics color odor DASC 3274 Fall 2006 A foreign objects particle size taste? leafiness, and texture Physical characteristics o Hay crops Stage of maturity - early Leafiness - not many flowers - alfalfa, DASC 3274 Fall 2006 clover • Seed head just emerging. Size of stems and proportion of total Color? • green; pale, washed out, brown, black Odor? Grain crops Stage of maturity - seed head development, grain development DASC 3274 Fall 2006 p ,g p Amt. of grain color, odor Consistency Length of cut
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Tools to determine quality t Chemical characteristics fiber • NDF and ADF DASC 3274 Fall 2006 A Crude Protein energy Fiber o NDF = total fiber cell wall (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin cutin and unavailable protein) DASC 3274 Fall 2006 p ) low NDF% = less bulk and increase in forage intake Fiber continued o ADF cellulose and lignin low ADF = greater digestibility of forage DASC 3274 Fall 2006 A can tell if crop was harvested at the right stage of maturity • fresh hay crop forage (alfalfa, clover, grass or any combination) - 28 - 32% ADF Fiber continued o Grain crops Increase in ear: stalk, leaf ratio = lower the ADF% in forage less lignin in the ear compared to the stalk DASC 3274 Fall 2006 g p and leaf ADF increase 1-2% as forage undergoes fermentation - Why?
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