Exam Notes - Section 3

Exam Notes - Section 3 - Forage Quality?? o Definition:...

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Unformatted text preview: Forage Quality?? o Definition: Source of nutrients supplied to the animal resulting in high performance  milk production  Palatability  tastes good  particle size, color, smell, no foreign objects, mold  Digestibility  Maturity of plant • cell wall increases and lignin increases g as %  Absence of molds and other toxic Substances Objectives of forage program o Use land resources to the fullest - traditional definition  Highest quality - year after year  Highest yield of: DM, NE, CP DASC 3274 Fall 2006 A Lowest cost per unit of nutrient  Cheap to supplement  Lowest feed cost/cwt of milk Other forage decisions? t New crops? yield, N,P, and K use, soil conservation, $/ton  GROW FORAGE OR PURCHASE? $$$$$ DASC 3274 Fall 2006 A Utilization of nutrients produced by cows in manure dictates growing in many situations What does forage quality mean? o Make cows milk?  Increase feed efficiency Feed cost 1/2 the total cost of producing DASC 3274 Fall 2006 A milk  Increase production per animal  Increase production per acre What determines quality? o Cell wall protection and support for plant  cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose DASC 3274 Fall 2006 • cellulose and hemicellulose are more digestible • lignin indigestible • rumen bugs digest structural CHO into VFA  Cell contents – highly digestible!  Protein, sugars, starches What determines quality? o Leaf to stem ratio  leaves have less lignin = increase digestibility  Plant maturity  increase lignin = increase in fiber = decrease digestibility Tools to determine quality o Physical characteristics  color  odor DASC 3274 Fall 2006 A foreign objects  particle size  taste?  leafiness, and texture Physical characteristics o Hay crops  Stage of maturity - early  Leafiness - not many flowers - alfalfa, DASC 3274 Fall 2006 clover • Seed head just emerging.  Size of stems and proportion of total  Color? • green; pale, washed out, brown, black  Odor?  Grain crops  Stage of maturity - seed head development, grain development DASC 3274 Fall 2006 p ,g p  Amt. of grain  color, odor  Consistency  Length of cut Tools to determine quality t Chemical characteristics  fiber • NDF and ADF DASC 3274 Fall 2006 A Crude Protein  energy Fiber o NDF = total fiber  cell wall (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin cutin and unavailable protein) DASC 3274 Fall 2006 p )  low NDF% = less bulk and increase in forage intake Fiber continued o ADF  cellulose and lignin  low ADF = greater digestibility of forage DASC 3274 Fall 2006 A can tell if crop was harvested at the right stage of maturity • fresh hay crop forage (alfalfa, clover, grass or...
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2008 for the course DASC 3274 taught by Professor Rejames during the Fall '07 term at Virginia Tech.

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Exam Notes - Section 3 - Forage Quality?? o Definition:...

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