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Exam Notes - Section 4

Exam Notes - Section 4 - 5 Dry,Transition Early Mid-late...

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5 Cows in the herd?  Dry,Transition, Early, Mid-late Lactation.  Heifers vs. Older cows? ° The dry cow  Goals? ° Body condition Rest for the rumen Overview of the lactation cycle development – late gestation Energy - .57 - .66 Mcal/lb. Protein - 12% - RUN? Minerals  Ca - .4% (<100g/day) - ~21 g of absorbable Ca/d  P - .25%  Na - .1%  Se - .3 ppm*****  Fiber - >30% ADF, Form of fiber?*****  Vitamins - A – 2,740 I.U./lb., D - 750/lb. E - 40 / LB. ****** Rest and rejuvenation of rumen  Bulky, high fiber diet  Encourage cud chewing  High pH. ° Rumen absorptive surface  shrinks in response to lower VFA? ° “Calm before the storm” Dry cow diet - Fiber digesting bacteria - high pH, dietary substrate? High producing cow diet - Concentrate digesting bacteria - low pH, dietary substrate? Rumen function of transition cow? Achieve high intake as quickly as possible? - Cow driven – Management driven. Goal for transition?  Do cows milk more because they eat more?  Do cows eat more because they milk more? ° Adapt rumen to new feeds  Bacterial  Rumen papillae? ° Critical to determining success in ensuing lactation.  Peak DMI, low incidence of metabolic disorders  Peak milk ° Protein  12 – 15%
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Fiber  ADF – 23 – 27%  NDF – 32 – 35%  Quality and form of fiber. Nutrient Levels? Close up cow (<20d prepartum Goal?  High peak dry matter intake, peak milk yield, healthy.  Each lb. of peak yield = 300 lb. of lactation yield. Negative nutrient balance - first ??? days of lactation? Early lactation - the first 100 days  WHY?  DMI is inadequate. ° Energy - 100 lb. of body fat = 600 - 1,000 lb. lactation milk yield  Mobilize stores of energy - body fat.  fine line between “normal” and disease state. ° Protein  Body stores? ° Minerals  Body stores Challenge is attaining peak dry matter intake, peak milk yield, early in lactation HOW???? Individual cow care Monitor Prepartum ration ENVIRONMENT !!!!!!!!!!!!!! Prepartum – close up group Energy -  High energy forages - Which? ° Alfalfa - <30%ADF Corn silage - <25% ADF  High energy concentrates - >.88Mcal/lb. ° ground or flaked corn or barley dried distillers grains whole cottonseed Maximizing nutrient  intake – post partum roasted soybeans Protein  Amt. and quality - Amino acid content  Correct amt. of degradable and undegradable protein Meet the needs of rumen microbes first.
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  Optimizes rumen microbial amino acid synthesis Increase dietary a.a. reaching small intestine Minimize loss of N in urine and feces.
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