Exam Notes - Section 6

Exam Notes - Section 6 - The Basics of Calf Nutrition •...

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Unformatted text preview: The Basics of Calf Nutrition • Dry cow nutrition? • Calving environment • Colostrum management • Liquid diet consistency and quality • Water • Calf starter Management Outline for this section • A brief word about colostrum management. • Why do we feed calves the way we do? • A systematic approach to calf nutrition. • Impact of environment on growth and requirements. • Practical management of “intensive” feeding calf feeding programs. • Making it pay? • Pasteurizing waste milk? Physiological Adaptations • Breathing and respiration • Nutrient source: blood to milk • Immune function • Temperature regulation • Blood acid/base regulation Importance of Colostrum • Disease prevention – Immature immune system • Passive transfer of immunity – Acquisition of IgG from gut • Local immunity Composition of Colostrum • 1ml >10 6 maternal immune cells – IgG (immunogobulin G) – T and B Lymphocytes – Neutrophils and Macrophages • Nutritional value – 23.9% solids – 6.7% fat – 14% protein Quality • Superior >100 mg/liter • Good 50 to 100 /liter • Poor < 50/liter • Unacceptable <20/liter IgG Quantity and Timing • Holstein 250 grams before 24 hours • Jersey 180 grams before 24 hours • Before 12 hours for 250 g is optimum – Feed at 0 and 12 hours Calving environment • Exercise – great appetites • Plenty of fat soluble vitamins • The down side? – Observation? – Accessibility to milking parlor and traffic flow on the farm – Control of nutrition? – DCAB? First one there is the winner! It’s a race between bacteria in the environment or the initial feeding and the antibodies in colostrum. Colostrum supplements • Calf should receive 150 – 180 g of Ig in 1 st 24 hr (150 or 250 g???) – Absorbs only 20 – 35% = 30 – 60 g. – What’s the Ig level in Colostrum supplements? – Source of Ig • Whey – 25 – 30 g/ dose • Freeze dried colostrum – low Ig absorption? • Serum derived – High Ig, Effective against farm pathogens? Colostrum Replacements • Use the highest quality product you can find • Minimum 100 grams of IgG in ONE dose Mi correctl & h gienicall temperat re 26 • Mix correctly hygienically – temperature • Feed in the first hour • If it costs less than $25/dose, you are likely getting a supplement, not a replacement. Colostrum replacer • Secure – Vita Plus • LOL – • When to use – No colostrum – Johne’s infected herd – Salmonella, BVD, Mycoplasma – Disease free replacements Colostrum Supplements and Substitutes • Reasons for using – Disease transmission – Poor quality Colostrum • Research data??? • No substitute for the real thing Not recommended!...
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Exam Notes - Section 6 - The Basics of Calf Nutrition •...

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