Phil 102 Exam Final Exam.docx - 1 Emma Voglmaier 820537907...

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1Emma Voglmaier- 820537907: Philosophy 102 Final Exam In light of their respective philosophies, explain fully each of the following (NOTE: Select any 6 letters from the following -- 10 points for each letter): 1A:Plato believes we have innate ideas and that all of our knowledge is acquired by our soul in another world before it is embodied into us in this world. Plato came to this belief after Socrates had a slave boy solve a Puzzle of a square without giving any prior teaching or knowledge of how to solve the puzzle. For Plato, the only explanation for this is that these ideas must have already been in the mind of the slave boy at birth. From this, Plato then concludes that our knowledge is innate and must be acquired by our soul in another world, which is then ingrained into us once our soul is embodied/born into us in this world. Therefore, according to Plato, we donot learn what we know in this world, rather our knowledge is this world is acquired merely through recollection/remembering what our soul first learned in the other world.1C: Cogito ergo sum is the first indubitable truth that Descartes discovered after emptying his mind of all of his past beliefs. Specifically, cogito ergo sum terms Descartes’s philosophical proposition of “I think therefore I am or exist” which proves his own existence and the existenceof god. For Descartes, cogito ergo sum implies, every time I think I exist as a conscious thinkingbeing, I establish a clear undeniable truth that I am, and do truly exist as conscious thinking being- I think therefore I am.1D: In logic, a proposition is self-evident, when the predicate of the proposition is already implied in the definition/essence of the subject of the proposition. For example, the proposition “hexagon is 6-sided” is self-evident since the predicate “6-sided” is already implied by the definition of the subject “hexagon”. That said, gods existence is self-evident since, St. Anselm claims, in the proposition “God exists” the predicate “exists” is already implied in the meaning/essence of “god”.1F: St. Thomas claims a proposition is self-evident in itself but not to us if the predicate implies the definition of the subject, but what is implied is something that is not necessarily understood by the being. For example, “hexagon is 6-sided” is self-evident in itself and to us, although it canalso be self-evident itself but not us, in the case that the being does not already understand/know the meaning of a hexagon.1G: Berkley’s concept Esse est percipi means “to be is to be perceived”; in which the concept “tobe” refers to existence and essence. Therefore, for Berkley, "Esse est percipi" can mean two different things. In terms of existence, “Esse est percipi” means, for something to exist it must beperceived, and if it is not perceived then that something is said to not exist. In terms of essence, however, “Esse est percipi” means, for something to have essence depends upon whatever the perceivers perceive of the thing. Therefore, what Berkley essentially means by "Esse est percipi”

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