RIVERA- muscular sytem.pdf - Chapter 1 General introduction General introduction 2 Chapter 1 Introduction Biomechanics is the study of the mechanics of

RIVERA- muscular sytem.pdf - Chapter 1 General introduction...

This preview shows page 1 - 5 out of 14 pages.

Chapter 1 General introduction
Image of page 1
General introduction 2
Image of page 2
Chapter 1 3 Introduction Biomechanics is the study of the mechanics of a living body, and includes kinematics (motion) and kinetics (forces) (Fung 1993). Force and motion can be seen as the product of the musculoskeletal system and are in fact determinants of athletic performance in virtually all equestrian disciplines. Therefore, it may be not surprising that musculoskeletal disorders with subsequent impairment of normal biomechanical function account for the majority of the cases of poor performance in horses (Ross and Dyson 2003). The most common disorder is lameness, but probably the most controversial and poorly understood is back dysfunction. The thoracolumbar vertebral column, as bony basis of the back, forms part of the axial skeleton that bridges the gap between the limbs. There is a complex and intricate relationship between the biomechanics of the axial and appendicular skeleton. Maintaining an appropriate balance in this relationship is essential for correct locomotion and maximal athletic performance. However, relatively little is known about this relationship and about the mutual effects of dysfunction of one of the components. Insight into the effects of back pain on one hand and lameness on the other on body mechanics will help us expand our understanding of the pathogenesis of these common orthopaedic ailments, improve diagnosis by identifying problems as primary or secondary, and better treat or prevent these disorders. Anatomy and biomechanical concepts of the vertebral column The vertebral column has important roles in locomotion. It accounts for weight bearing and provides soft tissue attachment sites, connects fore and hindquarters, and lends flexibility to the axial skeleton. The equine vertebral column consists of 7 cervical, 18 thoracic, 5-6 lumbar, 5 sacral and 15-18 caudal vertebrae, which are strongly interconnected by joints, ligaments and muscles providing stability and motion. The column is organized in structural and functional segmental units formed by pairs of consecutive vertebrae. Each unit has bilateral dorsal synovial joints and an axial fibrocartilaginous joint with a thick intervertebral disk between the vertebral bodies. Each of these articulations only allows for subtle movements, but together they give the entire vertebral column a significant range of motion (Fig. 1.1).
Image of page 3
General introduction 4 The segmental motion is limited by the vertebral processes of each group of vertebrae. The thoracic back has mainly lateral motion due to the long spinous processes, which limit flexion-extension; the lumbar back offers mainly vertical motion (flexion-extension) due to the long and inter-articulated transverse processes; the sacral vertebrae are fused into one sacral bone that has a limited range of motion with respect to its neighbouring structures (ilium, last lumbar and first caudal vertebra). The cervical vertebrae have much freedom of movement and
Image of page 4
Image of page 5

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 14 pages?

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes