Ophthalmic & Otic Disorders 1.Define and describe symptoms/presentation of ophthalmic and otic disorders that are self-treatable a. Ophthalmic: dry eye and allergic conjunctivitis - Dry eye – one of the most common disorders of the anterior eye o Mildly red eye, with patients complaining of sandy, gritty feeling & feeling like something is stuck in the eye o Excessive tearing may occur initially - Allergic conjunctivitis o Red eyes, watery discharge, itching, blurred vision due to excessive tears o ALWAYS bilateral - People will have more of a sandy, gritty feeling with dry eyes while allergic conjunctivitis causes more itchy, watery discharge that will occur for longer than dry eyes b. Otic: excessive/impacted cerumen and water-clogged ear - Excessive/impacted cerumen o Sense of fullness o Pressure in the ear with gradual hearing loss o Symptoms: discomfort, itching, tinnitus, dizziness, ear fullness, vertigo, cough - Water-clogged ear – not swimmer’s ear or otitis externa; retention of water within the EAC o Feeling of wetness o Feeling of fullness accompanied by a gradual hearing loss o Localized discomfort 2. Recommend pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments for the above ophthalmic and otic disorders - Ophthalmic duration of use: 72 hours; otic duration of use: 4 days - Ophthalmic – dry eye - Nonpharmacologic: o Avoid environments that increase the evaporation of the tear film Direct flow of air from heating or air conditioner vents and wind o Use humidifier o Avoid dusty places (may worsen gritty feeling) o Avoid prolonged viewing of computer screens o Wear sunglasses/goggles when outdoors o Eliminate topical/systemic medications Add dietary supplement; omega-3 or flaxseed oil o Warm compresses to eyelids o Drinking water to stay hydrated o Blinking on a regular basis - Pharmacologic:
o First-line – artificial tears solutions; second-line – artificial tears gel preparations; third-line/adjunct – non-medicated lubricating ointments o Artificial tears (solutions & gels) Stabilize tear film & prevent tear evaporation Keeps the eye as hydrated as possible Ophthalmic demulcents (AI): carboxymethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, dextran 70, glycerin, polyethylene glycol 400, polyvinyl alcohol, polysorbate 80 povidone, propylene glycol Resolve the pain & irritation patients may experience with this condition Mild symptoms: instill drops into affected eye twice daily to minimize dryness Moderate symptoms: 3-4 times daily Can be given as often as hourly Preservative free recommended with frequent administration Caution for severe symptoms or increased usage of products with increased
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- Spring '14
- Ophthalmology, Allergy, Earplug