Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Structure Functions of Cells of the...

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sensory neuron : a neuron that detects changes in the external or internal environment and sends information about these changes to the CNS motor neuron : a neuron located within the CNS that controls the contraction of a muscle or the secretion of a gland. interneuron : a neuron located entirely within the CNS system. •PNS: the part of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord, including the nerves attached to the brain and spinal cord. Cells of the Nervous System Neurons • neuron - information-transmitting element of the nervous system • soma: cell body; contains the nucleus and much of the machinery that provides for the life processes of the cell • dendrites: a branched, treelike structure attached to the soma of a neuron; receives information from the terminal buttons of other neurons. • dendritic spines: small “door knob” shaped extensions from the surfaces of the dendritic processes, that contain post synaptic densities • synapse: a junction between the terminal button of an axon and the membrane of another neuron. • axon: the long, thin, cylindrical structure that conveys information from the soma of a neuron to its terminal buttons. -longest: spinal cord to tip of big toe - multipolar neuron: a neuron with one axon and many dendrites attached to its soma - bipolar neuron: a neuron with one axon and one dendrite attached to its soma • usually sensory - unipolar neuron: a neuron with one axon attached to its soma; the axon divides, one branch receiving sensory information and the other sending the information into the CNS • usually detect touch, temperature changes, and other sensory events that affect the skin • terminal buttons: the bud at the end of a branch of an axon; forms synapses with another neuron; sends information to that neuron • neurotransmitter: a chemical that is released by a terminal button: has an excitatory or inhibitory effect on another neuron Internal • membrane: a structure consisting principally of lipid molecules that defines the outer boundaries of a cell and also constitutes many of the cell organelles, such as the Golgi apparatus - proteins with special functions embedded in membrane •cytoplasm: viscous, semiliquid substance contained in the interior of the cell; support • nucleus: a structure in the central region of a cell, containing the nucleolus an chromosomes • nucleolus: a structure within the nucleus of a cell that produces ribosomes • ribosome: a cytoplasmic structure, made of protein, that serves as the site of production of proteins translated from RNA • chromosome: a strand of DNA, with associated proteins, found in the nucleus; carries genetic
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information • gene: functional unit of the chromosome, which directs synthesis of one or more proteins • mRNA: a macromolecule that delivers genetic information concerning the synthesis of a protein from a portion of a chromosome to a ribosome
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2008 for the course PSY 454 taught by Professor Auger during the Spring '08 term at University of Wisconsin.

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Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Structure Functions of Cells of the...

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