Chapter 3 - Basic Features of the Nervous System neuraxis:...

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1 Basic Features of the Nervous System • neuraxis: an imaginary line drawn through the center of the length of the CNS, from the bottom of the spinal cord to the front of the forebrain •anterior: with respect to the CNS, located near or toward the head •posterior: with respect to the CNS, located near or toward the tail •rostral: “toward the beak”; with respect to the CNS, in a direction along the neuraxis toward the front of the face •caudal: “toward the tail”; with respect to the CNS, in a direction along the neuraxis away from the front of the face •dorsal: “toward the back”; with respect to the CNS, in a direction perpendicular to the neuraxis toward the top of the head or the back •ventral: “toward the belly”; with respect to the CNS, in a direction perpendicular to the neuraxis toward the bottom of the skull or the front surface of the body •lateral: toward the side of the body, away from the middle •medial: toward the middle of the body, away from the side •ipsilateral: located on the same side of the body •contralateral: located on the opposite side of the body •cross section: with respect to the CNS, a slice taken at right angles to the neuraxis •frontal section: a slice through the brain parallel to the forehead An overview •horizontal section: a slice through the brain parallel to the ground •sagittal section: a slice through the brain parallel to the neuraxis and perpendicular to the ground •midsagittal plane: the plane through the neuraxis perpendicular to the ground; divides the brain into two symmetrical halves Meninges •meninges (singular: meninx): the three layers of tissue that encase the CNS: the dura mater, arachnoid membrane, and pia mater •dura mater: the outermost of the meninges; tough and flexible •arachnoid membrane: the middle layer of the meninges, located between the outer dura mater an dinner pia mater •pia mater: the layer of the meninges that clings to the surface of the brain; thin and delicate •subarachnoid space: the fluid-filled space that cushions the brain; located between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater •cerebrospinal fluid (CSF): a clear fluid, similar to blood plasma, that fills the ventricular system of the brain and the subarachnoid space surrounding the brain and spinal cord The Ventricular System and Production of CSF •ventricle: one of the hollow spaces within the brain, filled with cerebrospinal fluid •lateral ventricle: one of the two ventricles located in the center of the telencephalon •third ventricle: the ventricle located in the center of the diencephalon •cerebral aqueduct: a narrow tube interconnecting the third and fourth ventricles of the brain, located in the center of the mesencephalon •fourth ventricle: the ventricle located between the cerebellum and the dorsal pons, in the center of the metencephalon
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•choroid plexus: the highly vascular tissue that protrudes into the ventricles and produces cerebrospinal fluid
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2008 for the course PSY 454 taught by Professor Auger during the Spring '08 term at Wisconsin.

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Chapter 3 - Basic Features of the Nervous System neuraxis:...

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