Chapter 4 - Principles of Psychopharmacology...

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1 Principles of Psychopharmacology •psychopharmacology: the study of the effects of drugs on the nervous system and on behavior •drug effect: the changes a drug produces in an animal’s physiological processes and behavior -effects of cocaine •Feeling of euphoria •Excitement •Reduced hunger •Feeling of strength •Dizziness •Headache •Movement problems •Anxiety •Insomnia •Depression •Hallucinations •sites of action: the locations at which molecules of drugs interact with molecules located on or in cells of the body, thus affecting some biochemical processes of the these cells •drug: an exogenous chemical not necessary for normal cellular functioning that significantly alters the functions of certain cells of the body when taken in relatively low doses •drug must enter body, blood stream, carried to organ(s) they act on. . For us, CNS Pharmacokinetics •pharmacokinetics: the process by which drugs are absorbed, distributed within the body, metabolized, and excreted Routes of Administration •drug is dissolved in liquid •intravenous (IV) injection: injection of a substance directly into a vein - hospital -heroin, amphetamines - fast acting •intraperitoneal (IP) injection: injection of a substance into the peritoneal cavity - the space that surrounds the stomach, intestines, liver, and other abdominal cavities -cancer treatment – longer half-lives of drugs - rapid, but not as fast as IV - most common for small laboratory animals •intramuscular (IM) injection: injection of a substance into a muscle -arm, thigh, butt -absorbed into blood stream through capillaries that supply the muscle - for slow absorption, can be mixed with another drug that constricts blood vessels and retards the flow of blood •subcutaneous (SC) injection: injection of a substance into the space beneath the skin -hormones -dissolved in oil preferred route - if the drug can be painful - only small amounts (too painful)
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•oral administration: administration of a substance into the mouth, so that it is swallowed -most common for humans -some can’t be administered orally because of destruction by stomach acid or digestive enzymes or not absorbed from the digestive system into bloodstream •sublingual administration: administration of a substance by placing it beneath the tongue -nitroglycerin angina (chest pain due to inadequate blood supply); causes blood vessels to dialate -absorbed into bloodstream by capillaries in mucous membrane that lines mouth •intrarectral administration: administration of a substance into the rectum -drugs that may upset human’s stomach •inhalation: administration of a vaporous substance into the lungs -very rapid effects •topical administration: administration of a substance directly onto the skin or mucous membrane -through nose = very rapid •intracerebral administration: administration of a substance directly into the brain •intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration: administration of a substance into one of the
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2008 for the course PSY 454 taught by Professor Auger during the Spring '08 term at Wisconsin.

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Chapter 4 - Principles of Psychopharmacology...

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