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Notes_for_biological_control

Notes_for_biological_control - What is Organic Agriculture...

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What is Organic Agriculture? Definition According to the USDA National Organic Standards Board (NOSB), "an ecological production management system that promotes and enhances biodiversity, biological cycles, and soil biological activity. Based on minimal use of off-farm inputs Management practices that restore, maintain, or enhance ecological harmony. Primary goal of organic agriculture is to optimize the health and productivity of interdependent communities of soil life, plants, animals and people." (NOSB, 1997) The term "organic" is defined by law (see "Legal" section below), as opposed to the labels "natural" and "eco-friendly," which may imply that some organic methods were used in the production of the foodstuff, but this label does not guarantee complete adherence to organic practices as defined by a law. Most "natural" products do not contain synthetic products, but may have been provided conventional (synthetic chemicals used in production) food or feed (as in "natural" beef). Rules are set by The National Organic Program http://www.ams.usda.gov/nop/indexIE.htm Challenges for disease Management Restrictive list of control agents so must rely primarily on IPM such as cultural practices Biocontrol products e.g Natural products, SAR inducers (some); Copper- based products (see lists in Agrios and Biocontrol notes) – efficacy of these products not always as good as conventional products. Case Study: How do you test if a bio-control activity works? Bioassay to test suppression of Rhizoctonia solani , Pythium ultimum and Fusarium solani by Mustard ( Brassica juncea L.) and Rye ( Secale cereale L.) tissues. Jar bioassay to investigate the suppressive effect of mustard tissues (root, shoot and root+shoot) on Pythium ultimum , Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani .
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Fungal Plug Parafilm Glass jar Petri dish Macerated Tissue
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We derived the following conclusions from the results of the jar bioassay and container bioassay: Mustard shoots in the bioassay were a very effective tool in suppressing fungal infection even more than mustard root + shoot. In field study however, mustard root+shoot proved to be equally effective against P. ultimum , F. solani and R. solani . Rye roots and shoots together can minimize intensity of fungal colonization. This can be attributed to certain allelochemical properties of rye. Interaction between root and shoot of either mustard or rye may have increased beneficial microbial population which competed with the fungus and can decreased infection.
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