Notes_for_biological_control

Notes_for_biological - • What is Organic Agriculture • Definition • According to the USDA National Organic Standards Board(NOSB"an

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Unformatted text preview: • What is Organic Agriculture? • Definition • According to the USDA National Organic Standards Board (NOSB), "an ecological production management system that promotes and enhances biodiversity, biological cycles, and soil biological activity. • Based on minimal use of off-farm inputs • Management practices that restore, maintain, or enhance ecological harmony. • Primary goal of organic agriculture is to optimize the health and productivity of interdependent communities of soil life, plants, animals and people." (NOSB, 1997) • The term "organic" is defined by law (see "Legal" section below), as opposed to the labels "natural" and "eco-friendly," which may imply that some organic methods were used in the production of the foodstuff, but this label does not guarantee complete adherence to organic practices as defined by a law. • Most "natural" products do not contain synthetic products, but may have been provided conventional (synthetic chemicals used in production) food or feed (as in "natural" beef). • Rules are set by The National Organic Program http://www.ams.usda.gov/nop/indexIE.htm • Challenges for disease Management – Restrictive list of control agents so must rely primarily on IPM such as cultural practices – Biocontrol products e.g Natural products, SAR inducers (some); Copper- based products (see lists in Agrios and Biocontrol notes) – efficacy of these products not always as good as conventional products. Case Study: How do you test if a bio-control activity works? • Bioassay to test suppression of Rhizoctonia solani , Pythium ultimum and Fusarium solani by Mustard ( Brassica juncea L.) and Rye ( Secale cereale L.) tissues. • Jar bioassay to investigate the suppressive effect of mustard tissues (root, shoot and root+shoot) on Pythium ultimum , Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani . Fungal Plug Parafilm Glass jar Petri dish Macerated Tissue Fungal Plug Parafilm Glass jar Petri dish Macerated Tissue Fungal Plug Parafilm Glass jar Petri dish Macerated Tissue • We derived the following conclusions from the results of the jar bioassay and container bioassay: – Mustard shoots in the bioassay were a very effective tool in suppressing fungal infection even more than mustard root + shoot. In field study however, mustard root+shoot proved to be equally effective against P. ultimum , F. solani and R. solani . – Rye roots and shoots together can minimize intensity of fungal colonization. This can be attributed to certain allelochemical properties of rye....
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2008 for the course PLP 405 taught by Professor Hammerschmidt during the Spring '08 term at Michigan State University.

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Notes_for_biological - • What is Organic Agriculture • Definition • According to the USDA National Organic Standards Board(NOSB"an

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