LECTURE 3 Data Presentation SP110 STATISTICS FOR PSYCHOLOGY
OUTLINE Frequency table Histogram Bar Graph
FREQUENCY TABLE • Provide a listing of individuals having each of the different values for a particular variable. • In other word, it is a systematic listing of the number of scores (the frequency) of each value in the group studied. • Example: Stress ratings of 30 students: 8,7,4,10,8,6,8,9,9,7,3,7,6,5,0,9,10,7,7,3,6,7,5,2,1,6,7,10,8,8
STEPS FOR MAKING A FREQUENCY TABLE Step1 : Make a list down the page of each possible value, from lowest to highest Step 2 : Go one by one through the scores, making a mark for each next to its value on the list Step 3 : Make a table showing how many times each value on the list is used Step 4 : Figure the percentage of scores for each value
Making a frequency table for the stress ratings scores. (Data based on Aron, Paris, and Aron, 1995.)
A FREQUENCY TABLE
USES OF FREQUENCY TABLES • Describes the data • Makes the pattern of the data clear • Shows how many scores there were for each value on the scale
Grouped Frequency Table A frequency table that uses intervals A grouped frequency table groups the frequencies of adjacent values into intervals. A grouped frequency table can make information even more directly understandable than an ordinary frequency table can. Of course, the greater understandability of a grouped frequency table is at a cost. You lose some information: the details of the breakdown of frequencies in each interval.
Frequency Tables for Nominal Variables
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