Test 1 Notes - Chapter 1 Nutrition the science of how food...

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Chapter 1 Nutrition – the science of how food nourishes the body and human behaviors related to food Nutrients interact with body tissues, adding a little or subtracting a little day by day, changing the foundation on which the health of the body is built (you are what you eat!) Scientific research reports provide an important foundation for understanding nutrition science Food – any substance that the body can take in and assimilate that will enable it to stay alive and grow, the carrier of nourishment Diet – the food and beverages a person usually eats and drinks Nutrients – components of food that are indispensable to the body’s functioning, they provide energy, serve as building material, help maintain or repair body parts and support growth 6 Nutrients – Water, Carbohydrates, Fat, Protein, Vitamins, Minerals 4 of 6 are Organic, meaning it contains the element carbon derived from living things…carbohydrates, fat, protein, vitamins Malnutrition – condition caused by excess or deficient food energy or nutrient intake or by an imbalance of nutrients Nutrient and energy deficiencies are classed as forms of under-nutrition Excess energy and nutrients are classed as a from of over-nutrition Top 3 causes of death – all health related – 1) Heart Disease 2) Cancers 3) Strokes Chronic diseases – long duration degenerative diseases characterized by deterioration of the body organs, heart disease, cancer, diabetes…determined by genetics, activities, & lifestyle…within the genetic range, food choices strongly influence the likelihood of developing these diseases Nutrition related diseases – Vitamin deficiencies, mineral deficiencies, iron deficiencies (or anemia) Nutrition genomics – integration of nutrition, genomic science, & molecular biology – describes how nutrients affect genes and how genes affect the nutrients Genome – full complement of genetic info in the chromosomes of a cell Genes – units of a cells inheritance, sections of larger genetic molecules (DNA), each gene directs the making of one or more of the body’s protein Physical activity plays a prominent role in healthy people Less than 10% of calories should come from saturated fat
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No more than 30% of calories from total fat Consume less than 2400 milligrams of sodium Physical activity reduces risk of cardiovascular diseases, increases flexibility, increased muscle strength & Growing trend in America – overweight and diabetes Energy – the capacity to do work, energy in food is chemical energy, it can be converted to mechanical, electrical, heat, or other forms of energy in the body, food energy is measured in calories
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Test 1 Notes - Chapter 1 Nutrition the science of how food...

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