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1Running head: HYPERTENSIONHypertension Among African American 18years and AboveJudith Ngante, MSN studentMPH 855 Principles of EpidemiologyDepartment of Baccalaureate & Graduate Nursing, Eastern Kentucky UniversityRichmond, KY11/26/18
HYPERTENSION2Hypertension (HTN), also known as high or raised blood pressure, is a global public health issue (World Health Organization [WHO], (2018). It is a chronic medical disorder characterized by a sustained elevation of systolic arterial pressure (top number) of 140 mm Hg or higher, or a diastolic arterial pressure (bottom number) of 90 mm Hg or greater, or both (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2016). HTN is divided into two categories: essential (or primary)hypertension and secondary hypertension. Primary HTN may develop from alterations in some chemicals that may be related to a higher release of catecholamines such as epinephrine and norepinephrine, which elevates blood pressure (Mohammad H., Patrick L., Gregory A., (2017). Itmay also be caused by a deficiency of natriuretic factor (a hormone produced by the heart) causing arteries to remain in a state of sustained vasoconstriction (CDC, 2016). Having high blood pressure puts one at risk for heart disease and stroke, which are leading causes of death in the United States. According to CDC, (2016), hypertension contributes to the burden of heart disease, stroke and kidney failure and premature mortality and disability. According to CDC, (2016) and Crim, M. T & Gillespie, C (2012), the Surveillance casedefinition for hypertension according by the 2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey data for adults were defined as having HTN if they meet any of the following criteria: (1) SBP 140 mmHg or greater, (2) DBP 90 mmHg or greater, or (3) current use of antihypertensive medication. People with levels from 120/80 mmHg to 139/89 mmHg have a condition called prehypertension, which means they are at high risk for high blood pressure (CDC, 2016). About 1 of 3 U.S. adults or about 75 million people have high blood pressure. Only about half (54%)of these people have their high blood pressure under control (CDC, 2018). HTN prevalence was calculated with all individuals aged 18 years and older in the denominator, excluding pregnant women.
HYPERTENSION3Global statisticsThe high and increasing worldwide burden of hypertension is a major global health challenge because it increases morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular and kidney diseases and financial costs to society. Hypertension is the leading preventable risk factor for premature death and disability worldwide (PMC, 2017). Globally, cardiovascular disease accounts for approximately 17 million deaths a year. Of these death, hypertension account for 9.4 million deaths worldwide every year (Mohammad et al, 2017). Hypertension is responsible for at least 45% of deaths due to heart attack, and 51% of deaths due to stroke. According to Mohammad et al, (2017), globally, among various countries it is estimated that between 1990 and 2015 the rate of systolic blood pressure (SBP) of at least 110 to 115 mm Hg increased from 73 119 to 81 373