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Unformatted text preview: Quantum Theory and the Structure of Atoms ., 1 1 6 6 6 6 6 , 1 61 66 6 66 1 C 6 INTRODUCTION | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS ! The Nuclear Atom GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 INTRODUCTION | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS . . . miniature macroscopic . . . . particles . GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 INTRODUCTION | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 INTRODUCTION | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 INTRODUCTION | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 LIGHT AND ENERGY | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS confused GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 LIGHT AND ENERGY | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS LIGHT GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 LIGHT AND ENERGY | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS . . . . GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 LIGHT AND ENERGY | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS , , , , , , , light , GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 LIGHT AND ENERGY | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS ) ! ( ) ) " # $ !×" =$ GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 LIGHT AND ENERGY | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS bigger scale + ! = 2.998×10 , * GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 LIGHT AND ENERGY | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS 7 I D 8 A 8 8 ?D ? IA λ I DD C I = C 8 ?8I = D 8 6?8 I ? = 6?8 I ? 8 D 8 8 C I CC ) ( DC 8 I DI 0 8 4? × I D = ? 8 8 D ? = ? 8I 38D 8 ? C ) .7 8D 8I D= C ? D DC- DD D ? IA - 1 GENERAL P 520 CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 LIGHT AND ENERGY | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS dispersed refracted GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 LIGHT AND ENERGY | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS diffracted GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 LIGHT AND ENERGY | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS interference GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 LIGHT AND ENERGY | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS interference GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 LIGHT AND ENERGY | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS . . property . a very important . . . GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 LIGHT AND ENERGY | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS is behaves GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 LIGHT AND ENERGY | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS .) ) . ' ) ) . ) ( ')) ) And so is energy. ) GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS mysteries • • light hot objects electrons metal surfaces • light atoms electronically excited gas GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS LIGHT ' 4 4 , radiated heat , 4 , more than , GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS Blackbody true GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS , , ,T , , , , heat intensity wavelength GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS ,. , , , , . big problem , , , GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS . . . point GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS ' peak ' GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS clearly wrong GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS '. . . . quanta GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS Planck's Law rethink GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS photons GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS photoelectric effect GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS 0 , 0 0 , 0 0 , 0 , 0 W0 FAIL SUCCESS GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS , . not . Photons really exist . . . GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS . . , both GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS , ' very small GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS out-of-this-world GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS 9 . -. 5. 8 5 8 9 , 8. 5 , 8. -.8 9 8 8 9 8 8. energy 9 - 8 9 , GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 SPECTRAL LINES | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS dispersed refracted excited gaseous atoms GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 SPECTRAL LINES | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS wavelengths specific GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 SPECTRAL LINES | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS lines GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 SPECTRAL LINES | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS characteristic color GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 SPECTRAL LINES | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 SPECTRAL LINES | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS four 3 != *+ -* 3.2881×10 s 0ϵℤ sharp principal diffuse 0>2 1 1 − . . 2 0 fundamental GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 BOHR’S MODEL | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS rethought GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 BOHR’S MODEL | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS ! ! unstable GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 BOHR’S MODEL | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 BOHR’S MODEL | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS . ) ' . ) ) orbits . ) circular orbits '( . ) . . ) ( ( ) ' )' . ) • . ) .' ' ' ( energy levels • . emitted ' ) ' ' lower ' • GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 BOHR’S MODEL | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS , remains in its given orbit , energy is constant no energy is emitted -RH En = 2 n (R = 2.179 x 10 J) H -18 GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 BOHR’S MODEL | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS rn = n2a0 (a0 = 53 pm) GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 BOHR’S MODEL | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS electronic transitions !"#$%$& = ℎ) !"#$%$& = Δ! = !+ − !Δ! = −./ 1 1 2− 2 1+ 1- GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 BOHR’S MODEL | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS 5 3 5 wavelength 5 . 5 BALMER series of hydrogen 33 4 5 5 53 4 5 3 !=55 !=2 sharp principal diffuse fundamental GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 BOHR’S MODEL | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS ,, COMPLICATED ATOMS . . MORE FAILED GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 BOHR’S MODEL | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS Hydrogen and Hydrogen-like ions one proton one electron GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 BOHR’S MODEL | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS . . FIFTY YEARS . GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 BOHR’S MODEL | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS ' assumptions GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICAL MODEL | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS THINK , , THEY ,. , . GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICAL MODEL | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS HARMONICS GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICAL MODEL | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS restricted Louis de Broglie h h λ= = $ m& GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICAL MODEL | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS matter GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICAL MODEL | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS /1 3C 1 5 85 31 5 . 1 55 8 6 85 1 93 5 9 85 6 1 085 61 5 5 5 9 5 9 9 12 C 95 , /1 3C 1 5 85 1 5 5 8 1 391 54 × : 5 9 21 1 5 9 1 89 554 2 /1 3C 1 5 85 ( : - -) × 1 55 9 8 1 391 54 1 , 9 5 8 C 981 9 8 1 5 53 GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICAL MODEL | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS . realm , particles in the quantum . ' . ' ' waves GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICAL MODEL | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS impossible ℎ Δ" # Δ $% ≥ 4) INHERENTLY IMPOSSIBLE " Werner Heisenberg GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICAL MODEL | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS BUT . . SPACE GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICAL MODEL | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS most likely ℎ + !" r = − ∇ + V "(r) 4() wavefunction " + 0 , , most probably stay GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICAL MODEL | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS ' ' ' ' ' ', GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM MECHANICAL MODEL | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS ,' . RULES ' ,' . ' bound ' . ' ' orbitals , .' . ' . , ' GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 ATOMIC ORBITALS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS RULES two bound ' , . . . GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 ATOMIC ORBITALS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS . RULES bound . ' , . . shells GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 ATOMIC ORBITALS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 ATOMIC ORBITALS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 ATOMIC ORBITALS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 ATOMIC ORBITALS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 ATOMIC ORBITALS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS ATOMIC ORBITALS . . . . . . GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM NUMBERS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS ATOMIC ORBITALS , , principal quantum number n . . . GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM NUMBERS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS ATOMIC ORBITALS . 2n2 GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM NUMBERS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS ATOMIC ORBITALS , , azimuthal quantum number l . GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM NUMBERS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS ATOMIC ORBITALS , . , magnetic quantum number ml , , , . . , , , GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM NUMBERS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS ATOMIC ORBITALS p orbital GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM NUMBERS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS ATOMIC ORBITALS d orbital GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM NUMBERS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS f orbital . GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM NUMBERS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS house where . GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM NUMBERS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS ( ( (. inside ( ( ) ( GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM NUMBERS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS ELECTRONS + 1 1 + + + -+ electron spin quantum number ms 1 1 2, -+ +/+ 21 ,2 + -+ GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM NUMBERS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 QUANTUM NUMBERS | QUANTUM THEORY AND STRUCTURE OF ATOMS . , !, ℓ, $ℓ , $% ( ) * 3, 1, 0, + + * 1, 1, 0, − + * 2, 0, 0, + + * 4, 3, 2, + + . ). , . , could not )) , ). ( . 2, 1, 0, 0 GENERAL CHEMISTRY I | FIRST SEMESTER | AY 1819 ...
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