Criminology Final Exam Review

Criminology Final Exam Review - Criminology Final Exam...

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Criminology Final Exam Review Chapter 12 Terms Broken window theory- the theory that social and physical disorder gives rise to crime Collective efficacy- a combination of social cohesion and willingness too intervene on behalf of the common good by supervising children and maintaining public order Defensible space- the subdivision and design of housing to allow residents to distinguish stranger from neighbor and thus elicit a sense of territoriality, which can reduce crime by informal social control Diffusion of responsibility- the phenomenon that manifests itself among groups of witnesses to an emergency or a crime, as a result of which people say that someone should act but that it need not be they because other potential helpers are present Formal social control- an effort to bring about conformity to the law by agents of the criminal justice system such as the police, the courts, and correctional institutions Good Samaritan problem- the issue of how bystanders respond to emergencies such as crimes Informal social control- the reactions of individuals and groups that bring about conformity to norms and laws; they include peer and community pressure, bystander intervention in a crime, and collective responses such as citizen patrol groups. Mechanical solidarity- a unity based on shared values and norms and on the similarity of functions performed by all members of the society Organic solidarity- a unity based on an interdependence of functions, much as in a complex biological organism Pluralistic ignorance- a situation in which witnesses in a group fail to help the victim of an emergency or a crime because they interpret the failure of other witnesses to help as a sign that no help is needed Protective neighboring- a combination of cooperative surveillance and willingness to intervene in a crime by the residents of a community Social control- a process that brings about conformity to society’s norms and laws Notes
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Formal social control may vary inversely with the amount of informal social control (cops use more formal control when informal control is weaker) h Donald Black—some criminal behavior functions as informal social control. h h “Vicarious victimization”—conversations with people who have been crime victims —can generate fear—seems to predict and individual’s level of fear better than their own victimization experiences h Media heightens fear—TV. h Fear of crime associated with weak ties to a community (residents don’t feel in control) h Changes in fear of crime don’t always reflect changes in crime rates h Kenneth Ferraro—fear of crime (emotional) vs. perceived risk of crime (involves cognitive judgment)—women more fearful than men (b/c of rape)—concludes that fear of crime based on realistic assessments of the risks that people have of becoming victims h Most fear of crime is altruistic—more intense than fear for oneself h People spend money on protection from crime
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Criminology Final Exam Review - Criminology Final Exam...

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